Another important issue for the dress is halachic statements on different issues humility, for, the obligation to be decently dressed and covered during prayer (Tosefta Brachot 2:14, II century AD).This behavior is then interpreted as the distance between the upper part of the body, considered spiritual, clean, from below, considered trivial and impure. Among the Hasidim in Eastern Europe (from the eighteenth century onwards), this division of the body acquired a rich symbolic meaning and have realized with Gärtle, a belt worn ritual before the prayer.
Article equivalent for women was the apron, which was intended to cover and protect their reproductive organs. These aprons, worn either under or over the skirt, or both, was considered a symbol of humility and magical protection. The use of aprons lasted between Jewish women of Eastern Europe and, after having almost disappeared, with a return of some of the ultra-Orthodox women who wear them, lighting Shabbat candles and festive occasions. Consider them the charm that will take them well-behaved children.
The practice of women cover their heads have become pervasive and universal throughout the Jewish world. In some communities it has become customary to cut hair or even shave just before or after marriage. Some women try not to let their hair uncovered while others allow some parts seen as is customary in every society. The custom of wearing sheytls, wigs, adapted by Jewish women in Europe in the sixteenth century, when it was fashionable for men and women, and lasted as an option for head covering among some Orthodox Jewish groups in the twenty first century. In several places in Morocco, in Bukhara and Georgia, coifs of Jewish women incorporated fake wigs that served as partial. Such is the working headgear Jewish women mahdour Sous region on the south coast of Morocco. This is hard work interspersed with silver hair ponytail, two locks which frame a woman’s face.
The use of wigs, even in the twenty-first century is a very controversial issue among the different Orthodox groups. Some argue that the appearance of hair, even fake, do not respect the ban to hide it, because the projection of all the hair is considered erotic, and so immodest.
With the passage of time, both the way and style of headgear taken many forms and is very different from place to place. In the past, before the modernization, the headdress women attested to his marital status and his socioeconomic status, place of residence, and community affiliation. In Sana’a, the Yemeni Jewish women wore gargush distinctive headgear hood like that hid her hair, forehead and neck. Identified Jewish woman from the Muslim woman and the Jewish woman Sanaa from Jewish women of other places. Each woman had multiple hats, the most sumptuous was merassaf gargush mezahhar (full hood gold), decorated with golden filigree pieces of silver and with different currencies.All these riches were part of the dowry of the woman, that he received from his father and has been used as its cash reserves.
During the first years of the twenty first century, the difference is smaller geographical and certifies belonging to religious groups and the degree of religiosity. Szatmar Hasidic women in New York and Jerusalem-wear headgear as a scarf that covers the hair completely, sometimes with a fill-in or a little bit of synthetic wig front, or a synthetic wig worn under the scarf.
The women of Neturei Karta and the more extreme groups, straight hair, and cover your head with a black scarf tightly. While the Belz Hasidic women wear a wig and a small cap on it, Sephardic women in Israel and Eastern Europe do not wear wigs, but the elegant hats and scarves.
Headgear for Men
In contrast to cover the hair of women, became headdress male compulsory only in recent centuries.It is not mentioned in the Torah, and in the Babylonian Talmud is just a custom practiced by certain human Torah scholars and at certain times, such as during prayers and blessings. And “meant as a sign of submission and religious respect to higher authorities, and before God.
In the sixteenth century, when the Shulhan Aruch, the Code of Jewish Law, written and accepted by all Jewish communities, covering the head of the men had not yet universal or compulsory. The code says that covers the head was a sign of a pious Jew, and especially important during the study and prayer (Orakh khayyim 2.2, 151.6). In Christian countries, the coverage of the head of the Jewish synagogue developed in contrast to the practice of discovering his head in awe, while in the Muslim world, Jews were no exception from the general practice to cover their heads. In both countries, Christians and Muslims, Jews were required to wear a hat, shape and color that would serve to identify as Jews.
Renowned in his time was Judenhut stressed hat medieval jew from which the Jews were identified and reflected in the two representations of Jews and Christians of jew life. The use of a double hat-a skullcap or kippah (hats) and hat, among the ultra-Orthodox, or just a skullcap, from Orthodox Jews, was developed in the nineteenth century and became part of the dispute between reformers and traditionalists groups. Among some of the reformists is skullcap worn during prayer and other festive occasions. When it ultraorthdox, to express their opposition to the reform, has begun to wear a skullcap and a hat on it. During the first years of the twenty first century, especially in Israeli society, which covers the head and does not distinguish between secular Jews and observant. The type of coating indicates the socio-religious and ideological, even political affiliation. For example srugah yarmulke, a skullcap crochet, has become a brand identity of the religious community and national political party.
Decrees And Edicts of The Contract
In addition to the rules Halakhic internal jew practice determined by restrictive regulations issued by the authorities of the countries where the type of Jews living in the Diaspora. These laws required Jews to wear special clothes, they are prohibited from wearing certain fabrics and colors, and required them to label their clothes with badges.
In Muslim countries, decrees began with the laws Omar (in the eighth century), which requires that all non-Muslims to stand up for their appearance, their clothes, the external manifestation of their legal status less as “infidels”. This distinction has consequences for the legal and social implications, and has served as a tool for maintaining the hierarchies and ethnic and religious boundaries. These laws were the conceptual guidelines for the practical limitations of different rulers. The decrees do not deal with the whole clothes, but mainly related to the colors and fabrics, and sometimes certain components of the dress headgear or shoes. In Bukhara, Jews were forced to wear seat rope-like an award.
Infidels had to wear dark colors like black or dark blue (some places had specific colors for Jews and other Christians). Green has been reserved for Muslims, because that is the sacred color of Islam.Jews were not allowed to use luxurious fabrics, as they were recorded in the edict. There were limitations on the size and cut of the garment. In Turkey, the size of the turban was of great importance, the greater the turban, the higher the rank of the wearer, because regulations restricted the length and width of the fabric turban shell allowed Jews. In Afghanistan during the first half of the twentieth century, could Jewish men wear only gray turban.
Introduced similar restrictions in Europe from the medieval church. In 1215 the Lateran Council issued limitation dress well known as a reaction to the mixture forbidden Christians with Jews and Muslims:
“… [T] hey can not take … … apologizing for the excesses of these reports, damn, we decree that those [Jews and Saracens] … in every Christian province and at all times has distinguished itself in the eyes of the public if other people by the character of their clothes. (Rubens, 1973, p. 81) ”
These decrees also included the use of a mark. The brand differed in shape and color, and in the place where to appear, either on the right shoulder or on the hat. In the duchies of Italy, a yellow spot was worn out. In England, its form was Tablets of the Law, and in Germany, the emblem was a sign in the shape of a ring. Jews also had to buy these brands from the government. “Every Jew over seven years of age must wear a distinctive yellow or red and white. Publican actual collecting the fee for the purchase of the brand” (France, 1217-1284).
These edicts and restrictions would mark the Jewish population and distinguishes them from others, they must be degrading and humiliating. The spirit of this distinction is not entirely disappeared, and was taken up by Nazi Germany, forcing the yellow badge as a discriminator race. The reaction of the Jewish population of these laws have taken different forms. In many cases, as you might expect, were affected, but in some cases, have accepté positively described by one traveler to the Ottoman Empire in the seventeenth century: “As in religion differs from others to make a habit: in Christianity violence, here in Turkie voluntarily “(Sandys, p. 115).
While this may not be correct, recognize the different reactions to the limitations humiliating. These restrictions of differentiation was accepted positively, as they met Halakha and the desire to differentiate themselves from others by their clothing. In some cases, these restrictions had different explanations and a symbolic interpretation within. For example, Moroccan and Tunisian Jews and Jews in Sana’a in Yemen said that the use of black, customized by the Jews themselves, was regarded as a sign of mourning to commemorate the destruction of the Temple. (There are several other characters in memory of the destruction, according jew law, it should be).
These restrictions sometimes confirmed by municipal regulations and internal takkanot called sumptuary laws. These regulations issued by the Jewish communities relate primarily to women’s clothing, teach them not to wear nice clothes, especially with gold decoration and jewelery, mainly rich public domain. Their goal was twofold: first, to avoid arousing jealousy among non-Jews, because it was feared that the excess of refinement in the jew outfit could take further measures from the authorities; the second, to avoid internal tensions between rich and poor families in the Jewish communities. These regulations limited run frills of weddings and other festive occasions, but admitted some exceptions.
These rules and regulations provide important historical sources to a careful study of dress codes in every society.
“We unanimously decided that from now on … no woman, young or old, must wear arm bracelets or chains, or gold bracelets or rings of gold, or gold rings, or any ornament … or pearl necklaces, nose rings or .. . [a woman] can not wear any garment of wool or silk, and [she] really [can not bear] gold or silver embroidery, even if the coating is external, with the exception of a hat, that is all that is allowed to wear … and as for children and infants, either boys or girls can [dress] is [of artifacts] either gold or silver or silk. (with regulations handed down by the rabbis in the community of Fez, Morocco, 1613) Velvet clothes, even the inner lining, it is forbidden to women and girls, with the exception of black velvet. the bride can wear any type velvet under the canopy during his marriage … some kind of skirt that is solidified with a hope of topic … or other devices prohibited married women and single … even small children. … From today until further notice should be no silk clothes of two colors, made for women, with the exception of dark gray and brown. (End: 20 dollars). Anyone who violates the open or in secret will be banned and treated as a person who has sinned against God. (From Jewish standards for clothes and wedding, Hamburg, Germany, 1715) ”
Styles And Dress Codes Sartorial
The large variety of traditional Jewish clothes before modernization, shows the strong influence of the surrounding culture in every Jewish community. One can safely say that the clothes of the Jews were more similar to their surrounding culture to that of the Jews living in other places, despite signs of distinction imposed on them.
Yet suit is not designed only as a delimitation ethno-religious, but also that the definition of group identity within the Jewish communities; One example is the “great dress” worn as a wedding dress and festive Jewish women from the Spanish cities (the descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain in 1492), Morocco. This sumptuous dress embroidered velvet wire, were significantly different suits local Muslims. It is strongly resembled the Spanish costume of the sixteenth century and retains many of its styling cues. In Morocco, this dress has become a sign of identity of the urban Spanish Jews vis avis local rural Jews; was one of the symbols of Spanish heritage conservation, which was a source of pride for this group. It is doubtful if this dress was worn by Jews in Spain. In Morocco, there were also variations of this dress was to belong to a particular city, Fez, Rabat, Mogador, and others.
This rare example of conservation of sartorial styles of a group of immigrants over 400 years leads to another feature believed to be typical or recurring in the jew tradition in different places. E ‘was observed that the Jews in many societies have tended to keep clothing styles long after they were abandoned by the non-Jewish society. After a time, these anachronistic clothing or clothing assigned by Jews and considered later exclusively for them and also a function identification. The best known example of this phenomenon is costume or ultra-Orthodox Hasidic, derived from the dress of the eighteenth century Polish noble and appropriate and preserved by the Jews, who became a distinctive clothing exclusively for them. Another example is how the sheet-wrap-and-wear veil worn by Jewish women in Baghdad in 1952. The custom of the veil is a norm in the Muslim community. Jewish women met this standard. Veiling was reserved for Muslim women and was not imposed on women’s low status, as servants and non-Muslims. Non-Muslim women are not required to veil themselves. The wrap Bagdadi covers the entire body, while his face was concealed by a veil of black square. During this period IZAR of Jewish women in Baghdad, veils of silk in pastel colors woven with metallic threads. Common among Muslim women in the past, this dress come to be regarded as a dress typically Jewish in the early twentieth century, when the usual Islamic dress changed to a plain black cover.
The conflict between the desire to integrate and the desire to isolate the Jewish society of the kind that surrounds the cultures were stronger in Europe during the period of liberation and modernization in the nineteenth century. As European society has allowed Jews to become equal citizens, some Jews wanted to assimilate and not stick out of their clothes, while others have seen this assimilation as a great danger to the Jewish religion and culture. Reform Jews changed their traditional dress costumes to modern fashion. This change was accompanied by debates on headgear and other issues. These changes and reforms have caused a backlash among some of the European Jews eastern centered in Hungary, who preached to stick closely to tradition. Each domain of life and clothing was considered a central aspect of this tradition (for bid Halachic that something new is forbidden by the Torah).
The use of better grip on the traditional clothing of the smallest detail has transformed the dress of ultra-Orthodox Jews in some kind of uniform, with which you are approved. There also be a safeguard against sin.
Because there are some common features in the jew tradition over time and place, is critical to the study in relation to the surrounding historical and cultural context. Nevertheless, in the framework of a given society and the boundaries of time, Jews could still be identified by certain peculiarities in their clothes, which were often a combination of local dress with one or two sartorial elements that carried with them over time.
See also evening dress on PickTrue.