Bosnia and Herzegovina - geography
Bosnia and Herzegovina was the third largest and most ethnically complex of
the former Yugoslav republics. Most of the country is characterized by
the Dinarids, which to the north slope down towards the Sava river plain. Only
through a narrow corridor does the land reach the Adriatic coast at the town of
Neum; traffic to the Adriatic passes mainly through the neighboring republics
of Croatia and Montenegro.
As a result of the 1995 Dayton Peace Agreement, which ended the war in
Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country was divided into two units or entities,
Republika Srpska with 49% of the country's territory and the Federation of
Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Muslims with 51% of the territory. The country has
gradually become more integrated with increased traffic and the return of
refugees and internally displaced persons. However, Bosnia and Herzegovina is
characterized by weak state structures, and an international presence is still
needed to ensure peace and stability militarily in the form of EUFOR, the
successor to the international forces IFOR and SFOR.. The international
community also exercises extensive civil authority in the form of the OHR
(Office of the High Representative), around adjustments to the political
system, ensuring the continued integration of the country through the
implementation of the return of refugees and internally displaced persons, and
the administration of foreign aid.
Population. At the 2013 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had 3.53
million. residents, after the civil war in the country 1992-95 led to large
population movements. It was especially the neighboring countries Croatia and
Hungary that received many Bosnians, but also most of the other European
countries received Bosnian refugees.
Do you know how many people there are in Bosnia and
Herzegovina? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density
about this country.
At the most recent census in 2013, three main ethnic groups together made up
96% of the population. 50% were Bosnian Muslims, 31% Bosnian Serbs and 15%
Bosnian Croats. In addition, a large number of other people. According to
the ethnic groups
do not live regionally separately, but there is a predominance of Bosnian Serbs
in rural areas and of Bosnian Muslims in the cities. This mix is one of the
many factors that complicate the division of the country into ethnically based
areas, as the Serbian minority, by virtue of its affiliation with agriculture,
has inhabited a large part of the area.
Profession. The Civil War caused extensive destruction of production
apparatus and infrastructure. Through the Federal Yugoslav Development
Funds built up a diverse industry, concentrated in the few major cities
of Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla and Zenica. It consisted mainly of light
industry, but in the Sava Valley and in Mostar by the river Neretva there was
also a lot of heavy industry.
Despite significant improvements in the early 2000's, Through EU support,
which is particularly visible in large cities such as Sarajevo, Banja Luka and
Mostar, the scale of corruption and economic crime is high, which is partly
linked to high unemployment. Therefore, it is of great importance when foreign
companies invest in Bosnia-Herzegovina, as when a Canadian-Indian consortium in
2005 took over the steel plant in Zenica north of Sarajevo, which had lain
dormant for years.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is an agricultural country with small and medium-sized
private farms and characterized by large forest areas. Unlike most of the rest
of Eastern Europe, Yugoslavia never carried out a collectivization or
nationalization of agriculture. The typical agriculture was based on a versatile
breeding with intensive forms of cultivation that was under modernization. Among
the most important crops were maize, wheat, potatoes, sugar beet and fruit,
among others. plums for the production of the well-known brandy slivovits.
Nature. The climate is characterized by the mountainous terrain with
great local differences. It is predominantly continental with cold, snowy
winters and hot summers. Large parts of the Dinarids are limestone mountains
with the characteristic erosion formations karst; a very varied terrain with
deep, often difficult-to-access valleys, dolines, and steep mountain
sides. From a military point of view, such terrain is difficult to operate in,
and it favors the locally known defender, a relationship that has been
significant several times in the area's history.
Are you interested in song associated with Bosnia? Here is where you can see
song lyrics and singer about this country.
Bosnia and Herzegovina - language
In Bosnia-Herzegovina Serbo-Croatian is spoken, the so-called Eastern
Herzegovina dialect, which is the central and most widespread Serbo-Croatian
dialect; it is also spoken in western Serbia, the northern half of Montenegro
and in large parts of Croatia. From time to time, the discussion about the use
of the term Bosnian for the language of Bosnia-Herzegovina has flared up, most
recently in connection with the recognition of the republic's independence in
1992. But since the mid-1800's. The Eastern Herzegovinian dialect has been the
model for the common Serbo-Croatian standard language of the former Yugoslavia,
and the term Serbo-Croatian has since gained ground. The vocabulary is
influenced by the more than 400-year-old Turkish occupation, during which a
number of Turkish and thereby Persian and Arabic words were recorded in the
language, especially in the fields of administration, justice and war, as well
as crafts and trade.
Bosnia and Herzegovina - religion
Statistics are uncertain; with a vague mix of ethnic and religious criteria
in the latest census (2013) it is traditionally assumed that there are 50.7%
Muslims ("Bosnians"), 30.7% Orthodox (Serbs) and 15.2% Catholics (Croats)) as
well as other smaller Christian and Muslim nationalities. Until 1992, the
religious groups lived extremely mixed, but with a predominance of Muslims in
central Bosnia-Herzegovina, in enclaves to the south and east and around
Bihać; Orthodox lived mainly to the north and east, and Catholics to the
southwest. The practice of religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of
Yugoslavia was free but not encouraged by the regime in Belgrade.
In parallel with the EU's efforts throughout the republic, e.g. Saudi Arabia
donates money to mosques and Koranic schools, which, however, is not perceived
as undividedly positive by some local imams who do not want Wahhabi missions in
an area traditionally characterized by more moderate versions of Islam.
Bosnia and Herzegovina - Music
Compared to other art forms, which have many common features in several
regions of the former Yugoslavia, the music of Bosnia and Herzegovina has
specific characteristics that make it extremely interesting.
The folk music in the countryside is very different from that of the
cities. In the mountain villages there are songs that stand in such stark
contrast to the cities' more popular melodies that there seem to be many
hundreds of years between the two styles; some believe they may have roots all
the way back to ancient Illyrian tribes. The songs of the mountain dwellers use
a scale with few tones and small intervals; one sings with loud voice and
several unusual forms of voice technique. The most important thing, however, is
a two-part voice, in which the second sound is treated as consonant. In a newer
form of two-part voice, the voices move mainly in third parallels and end in an
empty fifth. In the small towns one has early been receptive to foreign
influences, especially oriental, which is heard for example in the lyrical sevdálinka,
a melodic, richly ornamented solo song that expresses love and longing.
Secular art music manifested itself with the National Theater
Orchestra (1921) and the Sarajevo Philharmonic (1923). After World War II,
development accelerated; composers of that time should include Vlado Milošević
(1901-90) and Cvjetko Rihtman (1902-88), who also became pioneers in folk music
research, as well as Avdo Smailović (1917-84) and Vojin Komadina (b. 1933).