Cape Verde - Geography
Cape Verde - Geography, Cape Verde is located 500 km west of the coast of
West Africa. Despite the name, according to the first European visitors
(including Columbus), the islands have always been dry, and the name refers to
the location off the Cape Verde fort in Senegal. The country consists of 9
inhabited and 12 uninhabited islands as well as 58,000 km 2 of sea
territory. The islands are divided into the northern islands, Ilhas do
Barlavento ('the islands on the windward side'), and the southern islands, Ilhas
do Sotavento ('the islands on shelter'). The names refer to the location in
relation to the northeast passage, which characterizes the climate with a
constant warm and dry wind.
All the islands are of volcanic origin and volcanic eruptions occur
regularly. While the western and geologically youngest are mountainous and in
many places only difficult to reach, the eastern are degraded and sandy. The
precipitation falls almost exclusively from August to October and usually in few
heavy rains. On average, the rainfall is modest, and for many years it has
completely failed with recurring famine. The last one was in 1947 when 20,000
people died. Since then, the country has received large amounts of international
food aid, including during the prolonged drought from 1969 to 1985. Even in good
years, the country cannot feed itself.
Population. Cape Verde is one of the countries in the world that has
the largest proportion of the population as migrant workers abroad. It is
estimated that over half of the Cape Towns live abroad; the reason is high
unemployment (21% in 2000) and underemployment in the home country; on the
other, large emigration to the US and Western Europe in particular. The
tradition of migrant work has deep roots.
Do you know how many people there are in Cape Verde? Check this site to see
population pyramid and resident density about this country.
Unlike the Canary Islands, Cape Verde was uninhabited when the first
Portuguese arrived in 1456. They imported slaves from the west coast of Africa
(especially from the then Portuguese Guinea, now Guinea-Bissau) to work on the
newly constructed plantations. Cape Verde's position as a transit port first for
the slave trade and later for shipping in the East meant that there were good
opportunities to work on the ships. Since then, migration has continued because
of the modest opportunities in the islands and there is a surplus of women.
71% of the population are descendants of mixed marriages between slaves and
Portuguese. The population density is almost 100 inbsp. km2, which
is a lot compared to the limited natural resources. A large part lives on the
island of São Tiago with the capital Praia.
Agriculture is limited by both water scarcity and a modest arable
area, a total of 39,000 ha, of which 8600 ha are irrigated. Groundwater
resources are limited, as rainfall from heavy rains does not reach the
mountainous landscape. To curb the surface drainage, the government has since
relied on terracing, dam construction and a comprehensive afforestation
program. From 1975 to the mid-1990's, the forest area has increased from 3,000 to
50,000 hectares and a further 2-3 million are planted. trees every year.
The only agricultural export is bananas, with Cape Verde having a quota of
4800 tonnes under the EU banana scheme, which can, however, be far from being
Fishing. The territorial sea holds only small fishbanks and local
fishing is limited; Among other things, exported lobsters. There is great
potential for tuna and other high sea fishing, which, however, requires large
investments. So far, fishing rights are sold to the EU.
The industry is modest and is made up of small businesses that
produce for the local market. Since 1993, free zones have been
established for foreign investors; eight foreign companies had established
themselves in 1999. Since 1992, there has been a liberalization policy with
support from the IMF and the World Bank.
Energy. Cape Verde has to import all oil. An attempt to reduce this
dependency is being made with the building, with Danish assistance,
from wind turbines, which utilize the stable trade wind.
Economy. Most years, export revenue covers less than 5% of the cost
of goods imports. The deficit is covered by services (port money, sale of
fishing licenses), loans, aid (especially from Portugal) and, not least,
transfers from hijackers abroad. By contrast, the revenue from tourist visits is
negligible. The conditions in the nearby Canary Islands have otherwise inspired
a focus on the tourist industry.
nigerian chordophane language
Niger-Kordofan language, Niger-Congo language, the largest of the
African languages. The over 1,000 Nigerian-Kordofan languages are spoken by
over 650 million people. in a contiguous area from Senegal in the west to Kenya
in the east and South Africa in the south. The language guess was first
suggested by American linguist Joseph H. Greenberg in his The Languages of
Africa (1963). The historical-comparative methods known from Indo-European
linguistic research have only been used to some extent within the individual
branches and practically not between them.
The Nigerian-Kordofan language families are very different from one
another. A special feature is those between 10 and 25 nominal classes that can
be compared to the grammatical genders in Danish and are expressed with
etymologically related prefixes or suffixes in all language families except the
man languages that do not have nominal classes. For example, there is a
special class for words that denote fluids; this class is often marked with a m,
cf. Swahili m-aji 'water' and m-aziwa 'milk' as well as
fulani ndiya-m 'water' and kosa-m 'milk'.
In some Nigerian-Kordofan languages, a frequent feature is serialization,
ie. that several verbs without conjunction are common to one subject and that
tempus and aspect are marked in all verbal forms, eg akan for 'he/she
came with the table':
In bantu language, only the first of the verbs of the sentence is marked.
The Nigerian-Kordofan languages are also phonologically very different from
one another, but certain features are characteristic, such as vocal harmony and
nasal vowels. Most languages are tone languages with 2-3 distinctive tones,
but there are also four and fifteen languages. See also Africa (language).
The Nigerian-Kordofan language set includes 10 language families and more
than 1000 languages; therefore, only the largest languages are
mentioned. Where the year is missing, the number of people who speak the
languages is based on an estimate.
The approximately Thirty languages, the largest of which are Tegali and Kadugli,
are spoken by a total of almost 200,000 in the Dar Nuba mountain region in
The approximately 25 languages are spoken by approximately 15 million in large parts of
West Africa. The largest are bambara (about 3 million) in Mali,
Senegal, Ivory Coast and Gambia, diula (about 2.5 million) in Ivory
Coast, Burkina Faso and Mali, mende (over 1.3 million in Sierra Leone,
1989, and about 20,000 in Liberia, 1991), soninka (over 1.1 million)
especially in Mali and malinka, also called mandingo or mandinka (more
than 1 million, 1991), especially in Mali and Senegal.
The almost 50 languages are spoken by over 30 million people. in West
Africa and includes fulani, wolof, balanta and mandyak; see
West Atlantic languages.
The language is spoken by approximately 600,000 (1995) in Mali and Burkina
Faso; formerly considered gur language, but now an independent language family.
The seven languages, the largest of which are ijo and defaka,
are spoken by approximately 1.8 million (1991) in southern Nigeria and was previously
considered as Kwa language.
The approximately 25 languages are spoken by approximately 2 million in Southern
Liberia and Ivory Coast; Among other things, bete and dida east
and bassa, grebo, Klao, Guere and krahn west.
The approximately 85 languages are spoken by 10-15 million. in West Africa. The
largest are moore or moré (c. 4.5 million, 1995) in Burkina
Faso and senufo (c. 2.4 million, 1993) in Ivory Coast, Mali, Burkina
Faso and Ghana.
Most of the approximately 100 languages in Central Africa are spoken by quite a
few. Among the largest are ngbandi (c. 210,000, 1989) in the Democratic
Republic of Congo and the related Creole language sango (c. 350,000;
lingua franca for c. 5 million, 1995) in the Central African Republic, zande (c.
1.1 million) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan and the Central African
Republic, banda (c. 685,000, 1996) and gbaya (c. 65,000,
1996), both in the Central African Republic.
The approximately 40 languages are spoken by an estimated approximately 15 million in
West Africa and partly includes the nyo- language group with akan or twi (about
7 million, 1995) in Ghana, baule (over 2.1 million, 1993) in the Ivory
Coast and ga or ga-adangme-krobo (about 1, 3 million) in Ghana, partly
the left-wing languages with ewe (about 2.5 million, 1991) in Ghana and Togo,
as well as fon or fonge (over 1.3 million, 1991) in Benin and
The 10 language groups with more than 700 languages from Togo in NV to
South Africa in the south comprise over half of all Nigerian-Kurdish-speaking
speakers. Among the largest groups are defoid languages with eg. yoruba (c.
20 million, 1993) especially in Nigeria, but also in Benin and Togo, igboid
languages, including igbo or ibo (c. 17 million, 1995)
in southern Nigeria, as well as cross river languages including efik (about
5 million) in southern Nigeria and SV-Cameroon and ibibio (about
3.2 million, 1991) in southern Nigeria.The largest group is the more
than 500 bantoid languages spoken by over 60 million. The group
consists of: of some minor languages such as tiv(about 2.2 million)
in Nigeria, but the majority of languages are Bantu languages :
- Swahilior Kiswahili are native speakers of approximately 5
million and used as a lingua franca of just under 40 million. in most of
- nguniis the common term for the languages Zulu (about
9.1 million), xhosa (about 6.9 million), ndebele (about 2
million) and Swazi (about 1.7 million) spoken in the southern part
- Kinyarwanda Urundiis the common term for the languages Rwanda (about
9.3 million) and Rundi (about 6 million, 1995), spoken in
particular, respectively. Rwanda and Burundi.
In addition, shona (about 8 million, 1995) in Zimbabwe, Zambia,
Mozambique and Malawi, luba or chiluba (about 7.8 million,
1991) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, kikuyu or wentuyu (about
5.3 million, 1994) in Kenya, Nyanja or Chewa (c. 5 million,
1993), i. Malawi and Zambia, sukuma (approximately 5 million, 1993) in Tanzania, sotho or
sesotho (approximately 4.2 million, 1995) in South Africa and Lesotho, makhuwa (over
4 million, 1996) in Mozambique, tswana or setswana (just under
4 million) especially in South Africa and Botswana, umbundu andkimbundu (about
4 and 3 million, 1995) in Angola, Congo or kikongo (about 3.2
million, 1991 in Congo (Brazzaville), Angola and the Democratic Republic of
Congo, tsonga (about 3.2 million) in South Africa, Mozambique and
Swaziland, ganda or luganda (over 3 million, 1991) especially
in Uganda, kamba (about 2.4 million, 1989) in Kenya, bemba (over
2 million) especially in Zambia, lingala (about 2 million) especially
in the Democratic Republic of Congo and chokwe (about 1 million, 1991)
in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo.