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Eritrea Geography and Population

Eritrea

ETYMOLOGY: The word Eritrea is Italian, from Lat. Mare Erythraeum 'The Red Sea', by gr. Erythros 'red'.

OFFICIAL NAME: Eritrea

CAPITAL CITY: Asmara

POPULATION: 6,520,000 (2015)

AREA: 93,680 km²

OFFICIAL/OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: Arabic, Tigrinnya, Tigers, other African languages

RELIGION: Muslims (especially Sunni Muslims) 50%, Christians (especially Coptic Christians) 50%

CURRENCY: Nakfa

CURRENCY CODE: ERN

ENGLISH NAME: eritrea

INDEPENDENCE: 1993

POPULATION COMPOSITION: tigray 49%, tigers 32%, afar 4%, saho 3%, kunama 3%, others 9%

GDP PER CAPITA INH.: $ 590 (2014)

LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 61.5 years, women 66 years (2015)

LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, HDI: 0381

LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, POSITION: 182

INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .is

Eritrea, Republic of Northeast Africa; former Italian colony. After World War II, Eritrea was incorporated into Ethiopia, and it was only after almost 40 years of an impending liberation war that the country became independent in 1993.

Eritrea is one of the poorest countries in the world and is regularly plagued by drought. The war with Ethiopia in 1999 and 2000 meant that agricultural production stopped in several areas. Along with recurring droughts, it has made Eritrea one of the regular beneficiaries of the FAO's World Food Program. Since independence, Eritrea has been a brutal dictatorship.

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Eritrea - national flag

Eritrea National Flag, The flag was introduced on the country's independence day in 1993 and is a variant of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) flag. The star of this flag has been replaced by the olive wreath and olive branches found in the UN flag, which also existed in the Eritrean flag 1952-59 when the area was an autonomous region of Ethiopia. The olive branches symbolize peace, the blue color of the Red Sea, the green fertility and Islam, and the blood of the red martyrs. A change of flag in 1995 set the 1: 2 aspect ratio.

Eritrea Geography

Eritrea Geography

The population is estimated at approximately 6.5 million, and there are nine ethnic groups each with their own language. There are roughly the same number of Christians (predominantly Coptic Orthodox) and Muslims. The main dividing line in the country goes between the highlands with a predominantly agrarian Christian population and historically close ties to Ethiopia and the lowlands with cattle breeders, full and semi-nomadic Muslims characterized by Arab culture.

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The many years of war with Ethiopia meant major break-ups. More than 500,000 fled to eastern Sudan, from where a small part moved on to the West (including Denmark). In addition, at least 100,000 - including a very large number of women - took an active part in the liberation struggle. The integration of returning refugees and former guerrillas was a major task for the young state. The country's hard-fought dictatorship has caused a new refugee problem. Many flee to avoid military service, which is mandatory for most of the population.

Eritrea population

Eritrea - Constitution

Eritrea Constitution, The state of Eritrea in 1997 adopted a constitution that was passed by a transitional assembly with the power to legislate, but this was not yet in force in 2006, as the promised parliamentary elections are postponed indefinitely. Currently (January 2006) the only legal party is the People's Front for Democracy (PFDJ).

Eritrea - language

Eritrea - Languages, In Eritrea, in the central part of the country and to the north, the Semitic languages ​​are Tigrinnya and Tigers, and northernmost the North Cushitic language beja. To the southeast spoken the mutually closely related østkushitiske language Afar and Saho, and in a small enclave in the central part of Eritrea agawdialekten bilin.

In addition, in the southwest, the Nilo-Saharan languages speak kunama and nara. The official languages ​​are Tigrinnya and Arabic. Arabic is widely used as a trade language.

Eritrea - history

Eritrea - history, The present Eritrea was part of the Aksum Empire, which from approximately 200-600 AD was the dominant force in the area around the Red Sea. After a long period of partial independence, the port city of Massawa and large parts of the coast from 1557-1865 came into Ottoman possession. The entire region, with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, became of greater strategic importance to the European colonial powers, and in 1885 the Italians occupied the then Ethiopian controlled Massawa. The Italians continued the conquest until a peace treaty with Ethiopia was concluded in 1889 and the following year Eritrea was proclaimed an Italian colony. In 1896, the Italians tried to submit to Ethiopia, but suffered a staggering defeat at the Battle ofAdwa. Eritrea became the starting point for Mussolini's conquest of Ethiopia in 1935-36.

In 1941, the British conquered the Italian colonies in East Africa and then administered Eritrea until 1952, when, following a UN decision, it became an autonomous entity in a federation with Ethiopia. However, Ethiopia soon broke the agreements, and in 1962 Eritrea was incorporated as a province of Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s policy created vigorous resistance; in 1958, the Eritrean Liberation Front, ELF, was founded and three years later the armed struggle for freedom began. Divorce within the ELF in 1971 led to the formation of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, the EPLF, which eventually became the strongest of the rebel movements. The rebels had gained control of most of Eritrea in 1978; however, they had to withdraw partially when Mengistu Haile Mariam, the new ruler of Ethiopia following the fall of Haile Selassie in 1974, with Soviet support launched an offensive.

During the 1980's, the EPLF again gained ground, and in May 1991, in collaboration with a number of Ethiopian rebel movements, it finally succeeded in overthrowing the Mengistu regime. This ended the 30-year war, which had driven more than 1/2 million. people in flight and in which up to 200,000 people had lost their lives. The EPLF now established an administrative apparatus and initiated the reconstruction of Eritrea. A UN-supervised referendum in April 1993, with almost 100% voting for independence, led Eritrea's Declaration of Independence on May 24 of that year. Ethiopia. EPLF leader Issaias Afewerki (b. 1946) has since been president. Multi-party elections were scheduled to be held by 1997, but this has not been carried out. Eritrea is still a one-party state.

The new state soon came into a strained relationship with its neighbors, Yemen, Djibouti and Sudan. In 1998, there was a serious conflict with Ethiopia over an area of ​​the small town of Badme. It evolved into open war between the two countries; it culminated in February 1999 in a bloody battle with 15,000 killed, and Badme was taken by Ethiopia. The war ended in June 2000, and the United Nations placed peacekeeping forces, a Danish contingent, in the disputed territory. A commission was set up to determine the border, but in 2007, disputes over the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia flared and the UN was withdrawn. In 2008, they came to an armed confrontation with Djibouti.

Eritrea has become a brutal dictatorship; Freedom of speech is among the lowest in the world and many are trying to escape persecution and financial poverty.

 
 
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