The vast majority of the vast area is made up of dry plains, shrub steppes
and grass steppes with the Ustjurt drought in the middle, driest part. In a
broad border region to the north and west, precipitation is greater and the soil
fertile. Farthest to the south are irrigated areas by the river Syr Darja and to
the southeast an area of high mountains (Alatau) south and east of the former
capital Almaty. Much of the Caspian Sea is located in Kazakhstan, as are the
great lakes Aral and Balkhash.
Kazakhstan, with its numerous populations of different origins, is a
multi-ethnic state. The numerically dominant groups are Kazakhs and
Russians; some smaller groups are made up of Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Germans, Tatars
and Belarusians. In addition, there are a large number of smaller peoples. The
population fell in the period 1989-99 by 1.5 million. due to emigration of
especially Russians and Germans, but since 2002 it has again increased and
approached 15 million. in 2005. The composition of the population reflects
the country's history. Already from the 1700's. groups of Russian Cossack
peasants settled on the fertile plains to the west and north, and after the
final conquest of Central Asia, Russian soldiers settled in the area south of
Balkhash, the Seven River Land. During the great
forced collectivization of the Soviet era, manykulaks forcibly
relocated to Kazakhstan, and during World War II, both companies and workers
were evacuated there. During this period also became Volga Germans exiled
here, and in the 1950's there was a large influx of young Russians and other
Soviet citizens to the campaigns of cultivating "virgin land" on the northern
plains. In addition, raw material extraction and newly established industry
since the 1930's have attracted Russian specialist workers and technicians. According to
Kazakh population was also affected by their affiliation with Russia. The
suppression of an uprising in 1916 led to several tribes fleeing to China, and
when the nomadic population in the 1930's was forced to settle and collectivize
the cattle herds, there was a great decline in the cattle population and a
consequent famine. Again, many fled to China and Mongolia; between 1926 and 1939
the population did not increase and the Kazakhs came in the minority in the
country. It was not until 1989 that they again became the largest ethnic group, pga.
Do you know how many people there are in Kazakhstan? Check this site to see
population pyramid and resident density about this country.
Kazakhstan has large reserves of a wide range of raw materials, coal, oil,
natural gas, iron, manganese, nickel, copper, gold, etc. Many cities have sprung
up around mines. A well-known example is Karaganda, which was built under the
Soviet Union's 1st five-year plan in the middle of the country's large central
coal field and is now a major industrial city and Kazakhstan's second largest
city. The city's water supply is secured by a 500 km long water pipeline
from Pavlodar on the river Irtysh.
The main oil and gas fields are located by and in the Caspian Sea. Oil
production in 2003 and 2004 reached 1 million. barrels per. day, which is mainly
due to foreign investors accounting for 85% of production; since 1991, several
foreign companies have invested here, including ChevronTexaco is active in the joint
venture company Tengizchevroil. The majority of exports take place through
Russian pipelines, but in December 2005 an oil pipeline was opened to China.
Large parts of the country's raw materials are exported, but they also form
the basis for a varied domestic industry, e.g. heavy industry. Some of the
companies have been further developed from the factories that were evacuated
here during World War II for military reasons. Part of the light industry
processes local agricultural products, wool, cotton, tobacco, leather and food.
Electricity production is mainly based on the rich coal deposits. A few but
very large hydropower plants are found on the rivers Syr Darya, Ili and Irtysh
(with one of the world's largest reservoirs, Bukhtarma). There is a small
nuclear power plant on the Caspian Sea.
With the large new cultivations, the country has been an exporter of grain
since the 1950's. 30 million have been cultivated; it is only 9% of the total
area, but a very large area in relation to the population. Large areas are
cultivated extensively in huge farms, the former sovkhoser. Far larger
areas are located as pastures for the large livestock with both dairy and
slaughter cattle and sheep. In irrigated agriculture to the south, cotton,
rice and tobacco. Despite the adoption of a land law in 2003, privatization has
not really taken off.
Kazakhstan - language
Kazakh is from 1989 official language on a par with Russian. In
addition, Ukrainian, German, Tatar, Uyghur and Uzbek are spoken.
Kazakhstan - Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted after a referendum
in 1995. The executive power lies with the President, who is elected by direct
suffrage for a term of seven years and who can be re-elected immediately only
Only the President can initiate constitutional amendments, and this can
govern by decrees and dissolve Parliament if it casts a no-confidence motion or
twice rejects his candidate for the post of Prime Minister.
The president can only appoint and remove the government, dissolve the
parliament, print referendums at will and appoint the administrative heads of
regions and cities.
Legislative power lies with a bicameral parliament. The Senate has 39
members, seven of whom are appointed by the president, and the other 32 are
elected for six years by regional assemblies. Half of the elected senators are
up for election every three years. The Chamber of Deputies, Majlis, has 77
members who are elected for six years by ordinary, direct elections in
A seven-member Constitutional Council is empowered to verify that the
Constitution is properly complied with, but its rulings are subject to the