New Zealand - geography
New Zealand is a mountainous country with an extremely rich and varied
nature. The South Island is dominated by one longitudinal mountain
range, Southern Alps, with Mount Cook (3765 m), the country's highest
mountain. Large areas are uninhabited and rather untouched natural landscapes,
but many plains at different heights are used for sheep grazing.
Both the landscapes of the South and the North Island are formed during the
alpine folding in the Tertiary period, but strongly transformed by subsequent
ice ages. Thus, the southwest coast of the South Island is a large fjord
landscape with characteristic, steep profiles, high waterfalls and U-shaped
valleys formed by ice age glaciers, and in many places other ice age landscapes
are seen. As the country lies on the border between two tectonic plates, it is
characterized by frequent earthquakes and other tectonic activity. On the North
Island are several active volcanoes and areas characterized by hot springs,
geysers, sulfur lakes and other volcanic activity. On the South Island there are
only hot springs.
The climate is generally mild; the largest part of the country is
located in the temperate zone, only the northernmost part of the North Island
has subtropical climate. Large parts of the country receive abundant rainfall,
in many places as year-round rain. The natural conditions for agriculture are
favorable, for grass crops, which grow all year round. On windy mountain
sides the precipitation can be very heavy; Milford Sound on the west coast of
the South Island gets almost 6000 mm a year, and the west side of the Southern
Alps has rainforest and glaciers.
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New Zealand. Tongario National Park in New Zealand. In the area are several
high formations (Ruapehu, 2796 m), some of which emit gas and steam, and others
are regularly in eruptions. With its network of hiking trails and cabins, the
park is a favorite tourist destination and also New Zealand's most visited
winter sports resort.
When Britain joined the EC in 1973, it had a profound effect on both the
pattern of trade and the New Zealand identity; for 100 years the old motherland
had been an all-dominating market and the cultural "home", but with the EC's
customs barriers, the great geographical distance to Britain also became
noticeable economic, political and emotional barriers. This led to a harsh
transformation process that equipped the country for the realities of the world
market and opened up opportunities for SEA Asia and Oceania, and a redefinition
of the country's identity is underway. Among other things. the abolition of the
formal status of monarchy (with Elizabeth II as head of state) is being
discussed, and in the same process, traditional Maori values and customs have
gained increasing importance. New Zealand was hit hard by the economic crisis in
Asia in 1997, as the country primarily exports to Japan and SEA. Together with
the economic redistributions that have taken place in connection with
privatization and the abolition of social benefits and agricultural support,
this has led to a greater emigration within certain occupational groups.
Agriculture. The soil is generally fertile and suitable for growing a
wide variety of crops. In the sparsely populated country, however, only 3.4% are
under plow; barley and wheat are the main crops. On the other hand, 74% of the
area is used, more than DKK 11 million. ha, for grazing of 39 mill. sheep and 10
million. pieces of cattle (2004). No other country has so many livestock in
relation to the population. The average farm size is 222 ha (in Denmark 54 ha),
and very large farms are not nearly as important as in Australia. The operation
is modern, thoroughly mechanized and highly productive. By the end of the 1980's,
New Zealand had completed a comprehensive agricultural reform, which abolished
the significant support schemes that otherwise characterize the countries'
agriculture. This led to major upheavals with many mergers, further streamlining
and closure of the least profitable farms. Among other things. the sheep herd
has declined (there were 61 million sheep in 1989), and the cattle herd
forward. However, New Zealand remains the world's second largest producer of
wool and lamb (after Australia) and the largest exporter of dairy
products. Exports of agricultural products amount to approximately 50% of total
Forestry is of limited importance. approximately 20% of the land is
covered by forest or natural shrub vegetation. Most native tree species were
felled in the early years of European colonization, and the local, slow-growing
species have been replaced in fast-growing species by fast-growing species such
as the Douglas fir.
Energy and industry. During the 1970's, the annual production of
mineral raw materials increased dramatically as oil and natural gas discoveries
began to be exploited on the North Island. In addition, small deposits of a
large number of minerals are exploited. With its large mountain areas and
abundant rainfall, the country has significant potential for electricity
generation by hydropower, and 56% of electricity consumption comes from here. In
total, 29% of the country's energy consumption is covered by renewable energy,
in addition to hydropower, wind power is used and mainly on the North Island
geothermal energy from the active subsoil.
Much industry is linked to agriculture and the export of processed
agricultural products. Auckland is the most important industrial city. Pga. New
Zealand's location and the small size of the local market, there is no real
heavy industry, but the industry is otherwise versatile with iron and metal
companies, car assembly plants, wood industry and petrochemical industry.
Approximately 75% of the population is pakeha, maori for 'white man',
ie. descendants of European immigrants. approximately 14% are Maori, a Polynesian
people; 95% of them live on the North Island, not least in the Auckland region,
and are increasingly integrated into the European-dominated society. 5% are
recent immigrants from Asia and 5% from various Pacific islands, including
the Cook Islands, Niue and Tokelau, all of which have home rule and whose
residents are New Zealand nationals. There has also been large-scale
immigration from Samoa, and Auckland is the city in the world with the most
Do you know how many people there are in New Zealand? Check this site to see
population pyramid and resident density about this country.
There are only approximately 15 residents per km2, and 75% live on
the North Island. Here are also the main cities, the capital Wellington and
Auckland, both of which have a very large urban area. In total, 86% of the
population lives in cities, of which almost half in the two urban areas.
Danish immigration. In 1872, the first Scandinavian immigrants
arrived in the eastern part of the North Island, settling in a moraine-covered
area. From being almost exclusively Scandinavian enclaves, who subsisted
predominantly on sawmill work and railway construction, many British immigrants
came in the years that followed. The capital of the area came to be
called Dannevirke after the extensive work of building a road through the
impassable bush, which is now lush pastures and one of the focal
points for sheep breeding.
New Zealand - plant life
In the northernmost parts, the vegetation is subtropical with
mangroves and remnants of kauriskov. On the west side of the South Island
there is dense, temperate rainforest with southern beech (Nothofagus),
tree fern, Christmas tree (Metrosideros) and southern genera
of conifers such as Podocarpus and Dacrydium. On the drier
east side, steppe-like vegetation dominates with tussock grass, partly
as a result of deforestation. In the mountains there are many pillow plants,
vegetable sheep (Raoulia) and other genera in the basket
flower family. Most flowers are white, which is probably an evolutionary
consequence of the lack of pollinating insects such as bees, butterflies and
other insects with color vision.
The lowland flora is predominantly associated with the Pacific area, while
the mountain plants often have relatives in southern South America or belong to
generally northern groups, such as buttercup, star and gentian. The plant
geographical connection to Australia is relatively weak; eg eucalyptus is
missing. At least 80% of the country's native plant species are endemic,
ie. that they are only found there, but the cultural landscape is today
dominated by introduced European species.
New Zealand - wildlife
New Zealand has a distinctly poor native island fauna. Of native mammals,
there are only two species of bats; the role of the missing rodents seems to
have been taken over by the wetas, some large, non-flying grasshoppers. The
amphibians are only represented by three seed species.
Among the reptiles, the endemic tuatara must be highlighted, and among the
birds the endemic patch crows and kiwis as well as the extinct Moa in historical
Numerous animal species have been introduced or brought into New Zealand by
man. The populations of deer and rabbits are sought to be limited by intensive
hunting, and introduced trout species are fished in the rivers.
New Zealand - language
Official language is in addition to English, which is spoken by all as a
mother tongue or second language, from 1987 the oceanic language Maori, which
is the mother tongue of the indigenous people. New Zealand English has much in
common in pronunciation and vocabulary with Australian English. Of smaller
groups are spoken Samoan (approximately 5000) as well as Dutch (approximately 25,000)
and Chinese (approximately 20,000).
New Zealand - religion
The largest denomination is the Anglican Church, which has approximately 1/3 of
the population; the other Protestant denominations, of which the Presbyterians
are the largest, together make up approximately 1/3, about
Catholic 20%. In the Protestant churches, the influence of the laity was already
in the 1800's. unusually wide; it quickly gave the churches great independence,
and from this also sprang a "modern" view of mission among the Maori, marked by
respect for their culture. There is an independent Maori Anglican
denomination. The smaller Lutheran church is still characterized by the Danish
politician DG Monrad's efforts 1866-69.
The Protestant-Puritan doctrine of revival, which characterized colonization
and put social engagement and personal piety above supreme theological
innovations, is still the churches' essential response to the progressive
secularization in a country where as many as 34.7% of the population consider
themselves non-religious. (2006).