Norway - geology
Norway is located along the northeastern edge of the Baltic Shield and is
built mainly of Precambrian bedrock and the Scandinavian mountain range, also
called the Caledonians.
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The oldest pre-Cambrian rocks (approximately 2.8 billion years) are found on the
Varanger Peninsula, where relatively unchanged sediments and volcanic rocks rest
on a bed of gneiss and granite. Among the sediments are quartz-banded iron ores,
which were previously mined in Norway's largest iron mine. In southern Norway,
there are three areas with pre-Cambrian rocks. Northwest between Sunnfjord and
Trondheimsfjorden, gneisses occur with granulite, eclogite, dunite and garnet
peridotite, all rocks that originate from great depths in the earth's crust. In
the south-eastern Norwegian bedrock near the border with Sweden, there are large
granite areas, in the northeastern part of which there is a reddish-brown,
continental sandstone, the Trysil sandstone (approximately 1500-1300 million
years). The large southern Norwegian bedrock area consists of the Kongsberg-Bamble
complex, there are gneisses and supracrustal rocks, i.e. both sediments and
volcanic eruptions, with alkaline intrusives. Here the famous
solid silver occurs at Kongsberg. In the Egernsund field, in addition to gneiss
and granite, anorthosite and gabbro-norite occur with deposits of
nickel-containing iron and ilmenite ore (titanium iron). In Knabenminen in
Kvinesdal, former molybdenite (molybdenum luster) was used and at Modum some
cobalt deposits. The Telemark suite forms metamorphosed sediments and
granite volcanites. Quartzite from Eidanger by Dalen has been exported as a
grindstone since the Viking Age. Granites in the southern Norwegian bedrock area
are dated to approximately 1100-900 million years before now.
At the end of the Precambrian and from the Cambrian to Silurian sediments
were deposited far inland over the Baltic Shield, and along the continent's
edge, deep-sea sediments were deposited along with alkaline volcanic rocks. Of
these sediments are found in the Mjøsa area feldspar-containing sandstones
(sparagmites), dolomite, shales and moraine conglomerates (trust). At the end of
the Silurian, the Scandinavian mountain range was formed by a collision between
Europe's ancient continental core Baltica and the continent Laurentia, where the
Baltic Plate was shot under Laurentia. The collision led to the formation of a
series of excess cover consisting of the sediments and in places flakes of the
Precambrian substrate, which were transported up to 100 km in over the Baltic
Shield. The degree of deformation and thus the degree of transformation
(metamorphosis) is increasing today to the west towards the central collision
zone that runs between Jæren and the Varanger Peninsula.
In Devon, the Scandinavian mountain range was undergoing degradation, and
thick layers of conglomerates and sandstone were deposited in so-called
intermontane lake basins, some of which are preserved in Western Norway. During
the Carboniferous, the mountain range was largely broken down into a plain-like
erosion landscape, a so-called peneplan. In Perm, a burial depression was formed
in the Oslo field, where fossil-rich Cambro-Silurian sediments and intrusive
alkaline rocks with their corresponding lavas, the rhombic porphyries, are
found. From Jura and Kridt, there is a 500 m thick layer of fossil-containing
sand and clay stones with coal layers on Andøy in northern Norway.
The penile plane rose during the Tertiary, mostly along the ocean coast,
whereby the watershed came to lie near the west coast. The river erosion
increased and shaped the valley systems. In the Kvartær, the climate worsened,
and in the highest areas around the watershed a continuous ice cover was formed,
which during the ice ages spread to the whole of Northern Europe. The glaciers
deepened the valley systems that follow older geological structures. At the
bottom of the valleys, moraine deposits and meltwater plains today raise large
lakes such as Lake Mjøsa. Since the melting of the ice, the land has been
raised as a result of isostatic leveling, which has led to the formation of
terraces in the coastal areas at different heights: the oldest are found up to
240 m above sea level.
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Norway - plant growth
The Norwegian plant world is characterized by the rapidly changing climatic
and topographical conditions. The number of wild-growing species of vascular
plants is around 1500. The most species-rich flora is found furthest south,
where deciduous forests occur with
e.g. common oak, maple, ash and hazel; beech forest is limited to coastal
areas. The herbal flora in the deciduous forests is reminiscent of the Danish
with bingelurt, forest mark, forest lettuce and puffin grass.
In the rainy areas in the SW there are many oceanic species such as holly and
ivy; in the far west even extremely oceanic species such as purple heather,
several mosses and lichens. In terms of vegetation, Norway belongs to the boreal
zone, and tree growth is dominated by Scots pine and spruce, of which the former
is the most widespread. At higher altitudes, different types of birch forest
occur. The tree line is located in the southernmost part of Norway at
approximately 1000 m, in Finnmark only approximately 200 m.
Above the tree line, the duration of the snow cover is one of the most
decisive factors for the vegetation distribution. The mountain flora contains
partly arctic and partly arctic-alpine elements and is richest in calcareous
areas. Grouse heather (Dryas octopetala) is a typical
example of a species that, in addition to the Scandinavian mountains, also
occurs in mountain areas further south, eg in the Alps and the
Carpathians; after the ice age, it also grew in the tundra-like vegetation in
the intermediate lowland areas, eg Denmark.
A small group of mountain plants, approximately 30 species, are associated with
Greenland and North America. They are of particular plant geographical interest,
as they are presumed to have survived the last ice age in ice-free areas, either
coastal mountain refuges (on nunataks) in southern Norway or tundra refuges in
Norway - wildlife
Norwegian fauna has a great feature of Arctic species, such as clean, arctic
fox, wolverine, lemmings, ptarmigan and snow bunting that are prevalent down
in the southern mountain regions of over 1000 m altitude; The Hardangervidda
thus has a large population of wild reindeer, while the majority of reindeer in
the north are domestic reindeer. In the mountains, mountain lark
and heifer character birds.
Musk ox, which is one of the few mammals found in Norwegian Kvartær deposits,
has been exposed several times and has established a population in the Dovre
area. Red deer are particularly numerous in western Norway, and deer have in the
1900's. spread all the way up to Finnmark. Moose are common, and there are solid
populations of the large predators bear, lynx and wolverine, while wolves and
mountain foxes have become quite rare.
Butt-nosed frogs and reptiles forest lizards and vipers are widespread
throughout the country; the latter can be found high up in the mountains. In
western and northern Norway, the fish fauna is dominated by salmon, trout and
mountain trout, and salmon fishing in e.g. Namsen attracts many foreign
anglers. In SE there are perch, pike and several carp fish. The insect
fauna counts about 15,000 known species, of which 3400 beetle species, many with
a northern distribution limit in Norway.
Along the coast there are seabird colonies with guillemots, teapots and
mallemuk and in many places large sole colonies. Norway has a strong population
of sea eagles, which especially breed near the coast. Gray seals, harbor seals
and harbor seals breed in Norway, while ringed seals, harp seals and hooded
seals are common roamers. Several whale species migrate past the country, and a
certain amount of tourist activity has been built up, especially on Lofoten,
around whale safaris for sperm whales, orcas, blue whales, fin
whales and saithe whales.
Norway - language
Norwegian is the mother tongue of approximately 94% of the population in Norway and
for a small minority outside Norway, especially in the USA. There are two
official Norwegian written languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk, and answers from
public authorities must be in the same language as the inquiry. School districts
must choose one target as the language of instruction, but students must be able
to read and write both target forms. Most Norwegians write Bokmål or Riksmål,
which is a more conservative variant.
approximately 30,000 in northern Norway speak Sami or both Sami and Norwegian. The
Sami written language is allowed in Norwegian schools, and since 1992 these Sami
speakers have had the right to receive answers in Sami from public authorities.
Among the main immigrant languages are Urdu (about
14,000), Vietnamese, Chinese and Turkish. In addition,
approximately 25,000 Danish or Swedish and somewhat fewer Finnish.
Norway - religion
The Nordic religion officially gave way to Christianity in the beginning of
the 1000's. In 1152-53 the country became an independent church province. Norway
was from 1397 part of the Kalmar Union and until 1814 subject to the Danish
king; the Lutheran Reformation was introduced in 1536 by the Danish king. From
the beginning of the 1600's was the Lutheran Orthodoxy exclusive. With the
introduction of autocracy in 1660-61, the church was governed from
Copenhagen. As in Denmark, pietism gave birth to revival and school and mission
initiatives, and the Enlightenment a mild rationalism. During the union with
Sweden 1814-1905, the national church government was strengthened. The
Evangelical Lutheran Church has since been a state church with parish councils
(1920), bishops' councils (1933), church councils (1969) and since 1984 a
representative church meeting. Freedom of religion was strengthened in the
1840's, most recently in 1964. From 1969, registered denominations outside the
state church are entitled to state subsidies.
1800-t. was characterized by large, often pietistic revivals (not least the
Haugian) and an extensive low-church inner and outer missionary association. The
priests were most often orthodox-pietistic, but Grundtvigianism also gained
ground. From the end of the 1800's, there were violent clashes between liberals
and conservatives, which led to the establishment in 1908 of a private
theological faculty, the Congregational Faculty, which was in opposition to the
liberal faculty at Oslo University. During the German occupation 1940-45, a
united church front was formed. The old contradictions have characterized the
debate in the post-war period with sharp clashes about especially abortion and
female priests. In 1993, Norway got its first female bishop. New revivals have
been predominantly charismatic.
In 1996, approximately 88% to the state church, approximately 6% belonged to other
denominations, and approximately 6% were not members of any denomination.
Among the free churches, the Pentecostal movement, the Methodist Church, the
Norwegian Missionary Association and the Salvation Army in particular stand out
with a total of approximately 80,000 members. Characteristic of Norwegian church life
is the extensive missionary work that a large number of voluntary associations
carry out at home and abroad. The most important are (1999): Det Norske
Misjonsselskap (approximately 5000 associations, 410 missionaries), Norsk Lutheran
Misjonssamband (approximately 3300 associations, 400 missionaries), Det norske
lutherske Indremisjonsselskap (approximately 3000 associations/groups) and Det
Vestlandske Indremisjonsforbund (1500 associations).