Oakland. It is a city in California located in the
eastern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States.
The first recorded residents were the Huchiun tribe, belonging to a
linguistic group later called the Ohlone (a Miwok word meaning "western
people"). In Oakland, they were heavily concentrated around Lake Merritt
and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters San Francisco Bay
Oakland, along with the rest of California, was claimed for the
Spanish king by explorers from New Spain in 1772. In the early 19th
century, the area that later became Oakland (along with most of the East
Bay), was granted to Luís María Peralta by the Spanish royal government
for his San Antonio ranch. The award was confirmed by the successor's
Mexican Republic upon its independence from Spain.
The area of the ranch that is occupied today downtown and extending
over into the adjacent part of Alameda, California (originally not an
island, but a peninsula), included a woodland of oak trees. This area
was called Encinal by the Peraltas, a Spanish word that means "Oakland",
the origin of the last city's name. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta
divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the
shares given to Antonio María and Vicente. They would open the land to
the settlement of American settlers, loggers, European whalers, and
Settlement and full-scale development occurred in following
California which was conquered by the United States during the
Mexican-American War, and the California Gold Rush in 1848. The original
settlement which is now the center of the city was called "Against the
Coast" and initially included within Contra Coast County before Alameda
County was established on March 25, 1853. The California state
legislature incorporated the city of Oakland on May 4, 1852.
The city and its surroundings grew rapidly with the railways,
becoming a major rail terminus in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the
Central Pacific built the Oakland Long Pier at Oakland Point, the site
of today's Port of Oakland. The Long Pier served as both the terminus of
the transcontinental railroad as well as the local commuter trains
(later, southern) from the central Pacific.
The Central Pacific also established one of its largest rail yards
and maintenance facilities in West Oakland which continued to be a major
local employer under the South Pacific well into the 20th century. The
South Pacific Major Depot in Oakland was the 16th Street Station located
at 16th and Timber which (2006-7) is currently being partially restored
as part of a redevelopment project.
A number of horsecar and cable car lines were built in Oakland in the
latter half of the 1800s. The first streetcar lines set out from Oakland
to Berkeley in 1891, and other electrical lines were converted and added
over the course of the 1890s. Various streetcar companies operating in
Oakland were acquired and consolidated by Francis "Borax" Smith when it
eventually became known as the dominant system, the forerunner of
today's owned AC public transit. In addition to its system of streetcars
in the East Bay, the key system also ran commuter trains to its own pier
and ferries to San Francisco, in competition with the South Pacific.
Upon completion of the Bay Bridge, both companies operated their
commuter trains on the south side of the lower deck direct to San
Francisco. The dominant system in its early days was actually partly a
real estate company, with the transit part serving to help open up new
zones for buyers. Key Investors (incorporated as the "Real Estate
Syndicate") also established two large hotels in Oakland, one of which
survives as the Claremont Resort. The other, which burned down in the
early 1930s, was the route's key inn, located at which is now Grand and
West Broadway. From 1904 to 1929 The real estate syndicate also ran a
major amusement park in North Oakland called Idora Park.
Oakland's original grade upon its incorporation lay south of today's
major intersection of St. Paul Avenue, Broadway and 14th Street. The
town's gradually annexed farmland and settlements to the east and north.
Oakland's rise to industrial prominence and its subsequent need for a
port led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902 creating
the "island" of nearby town Alameda, California. In 1906 its population
doubled with refugees made homeless after the San Francisco earthquake
and fire who had fled to Oakland. In 1915, a Chevrolet plant was opened
on Oakland's southern border. Before 1920 Oakland was the home of
numerous manufacturing industries, including metals, canneries,
bakeries, automobiles, and shipbuilding.
The 1920s were economic boom years in the United States as a whole,
and in California especially. Economic growth was fueled by the general
postwar recovery, as well as oil discoveries in Los Angeles, and the
widespread introduction of the automobile. Oakland grew significantly in
the 1920s. According to the Oakland Tribune yearbook for 1925, more
houses were built from 1921 to 1924 than in the period 1907 to 1920.
Many of the single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built in
the 1925s. 1920s. The large city center of many office buildings was
built in the 1920s, and reflects the architectural styles of the time.
Soon after the war, the shipbuilding and automobile industries
virtually evaporated, as did the jobs that came with it. Many who came
to the city did not leave and decided to make their new home in Oakland.
Meanwhile, many of the city's more affluent residents left after the war
to move into newly developing suburbs east of the foothills while many
manual targets moved to adjacent cities such as San Leandro and Alameda,
part of a nationwide phenomenon of white flight.
During this period, the freeway system was built and the key system
was dismantled. The largest high-rise was built on the west side of Lake
Merritt, the Kaiser Permanente headquarters building (the industry, not
the HMO). Also in this era, the seedy, cut-down area at the foot of
Broadway was transformed into Jack London Square. A TV broadcast station
was established there, today's KTVU.
Nonetheless, by the late 1960s, Oakland, which had been quite
prosperous and affluent before the war, encountered a population that
was increasingly poor and black.
Geography and climate
Oakland is located about 37 ° 48 'north, 122 ° 15' west (37.8, -
122.25), GR1 in the longitudinal center of California, on the east side
of the San Francisco Bay.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total
area of 78.2 mi² (202.4 km²). 56.1 miles (145.2 km²) of it is land and
22.1 miles (57.2 km²) of it (28.28 percent) is water.
Oaklanders most widely refer to their city's terrain as "the
flatlands" and "the hills," which on top of even recent waves of
gentrification have also been a deep economic landmark of Oakland
divide, with "the hills" being more common communities. tributaries.
About two-thirds of Oakland lies within the flat plain of the San
Francisco Bay, with one-half rising into the foothills and the East Bay
Oakland's climate is characterized by arid temperate and seasonal
Mediterranean climate. More specifically, it has properties found in
nearby coastal cities such as San Francisco, California and inland
cities such as San Jose, California, so it is hotter than San
Francisco and cooler than San Jose. While it does not adjoin the Pacific
Ocean proper, its position on San Francisco Bay through the Golden Gate
directly means that the city gets significant cooling maritime fog
during the summer. It is far enough away, although the fog is often
consumed by noon, allowing it to have stereotypically sunny California
The National Weather Service has two official weather stations in
Oakland: Oakland International Airport and the Oakland Museum
As of the census of 2000, there were 399,484 people, 150,790
households, and 86,402 families residing in the city. The population
density was 7,126.6 / mi (2,751.4 / km²). There were 157,508 housing
units at an average density of 2,809.8 / mi (1,084.8 / km²). The racial
makeup of the city was 35.66 percent African American, 23.52 percent
White, 0.66 percent Native American, 15.23 percent Asian American, 0.50
percent Pacific Islander, 11.66 percent from other races, and 4.98
percent from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 21.89
percent of the population.
Estimates from the United States of America US Census Bureau. 2005
show that the African American is 31.00 percent, 26.10 percent White,
the Native American 0.60 percent, the Asian American 16.40 percent, the
Pacific Islander 0.90 percent, 14.00 percent other races, and 4.80
percent from two or more races. The Hispanic or Latino of any race was
25.00 percent of the population.
The African American population has been since the mid-1980s, while
the Latino population has been growing. Oakland is one of the most
ethnically diverse and integrated cities in the country.
There were 150,790 households out of which 28.6 percent had children
under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0 percent were married parents
living together, 17.7 percent had a female head of household with no
husband present, and 42.7 percent were non- families 32.5 percent of all
households were made up of individuals and 8.6 percent have someone
older than 65 years of age. The median household size was 2.60 and the
median family size was 3.38.
An Urban Institute analysis of the US Census 2000 numbers showed that
Oakland has the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians among
the 50 largest cities in the US, behind San Francisco and Seattle.
Same-sex couples are 2.94, who live in Oakland as in the typical
American city, the urban institute analysis found. According to the same
study, Oakland has the nation's largest population of lesbian couples.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.0 percent under the
age of 18, 9.7 percent from 18 to 24, 34.0 percent from 25 to 44, 20.9
percent from 45 to 64, and 10.5 percent. one hundred who were 65 years
of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females
there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were
The median income for a household in the city was $ 40,055, and the
median income for a family was $ 44,384. Males had a median income of $
37,433 versus $ 35,088 for females. The per capita rent for the city was
$ 21,936. About 16.2 percent of families and 19.4 percent of the
population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of whom
are under 18 years of age and 13.1 percent of those are over 65 years of
The Oakland Tribune published its first newspaper on February 21,
1874. The Tribune Tower, which sports a clock, is one of Oakland's
landmarks. At key hours throughout the day (8:00 am, noon, 5:00 pm), the
clock tower clarion plays a variety of classical melodies, which change
on a daily basis.
The East Bay Express, most notable for putting agent Gary Coleman on
the ballot for governor in the 2003 California recall election, is based
in Emeryville and is distributed throughout Oakland.
- Oakland Museum of California
- Chabot space and science center
- Paramount Theater
- London Cat Square
- Lake Merritt
- Children's fairyland
- McAfee Coliseum, home to the Oakland Raiders of the National
Football League, and the Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball
- Oracle Arena (since November 10, 2006, formerly Oakland Arena),
directly adjacent to the McAfee Coliseum, home to the National
Basketball Association's Golden State Warriors
- Dunsmuir House
- Knowland State Park Arboretum, home of the Oakland Zoo
- USS Potomac, Franklin Delano Roosevelt's presidential yacht
- Guillermo José McInnes Botanical Garden and Campus Arboretum,
located on the campus of the University of the Mills
- Mountain View Cemetery, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and
the resting place of many famous Californians
- Homemade Pardee
- Sequoia Regional Park
- Sibley Park
- Rosewood House Asian Art Museum
- Oakland Public Library
- Morcom Rose Garden Best from July through October
Sports and teams
- Oakland Oaks, League of the Pacific Coast Baseball, 1903 - 1955.
(The oaks played at Oak Park in Emeryville, California after )
- Oakland Oaks, American Basketball League, 1962.
- Oakland Oaks, the American Association
of Basketball, 1967 - 1969.
- Oakland Seals, major league hockey, 1967 - 1976.
- Oakland Clipper, American Football League, 1968.
- Oakland Stompers, American Football League, 1978.
- Oakland Raiders, United States Football League, 1983 - 1985.
- Oakland Roller Skates, International Hockey, 1993 - 1996.
The common large neighborhood divisions in the city are "Downtown
Oakland," "East Oakland," "North Oakland," and "West Oakland." East
Oakland actually encompasses more than half the Oakland area, stretching
from Lake Merritt southeast to San Leandro, California. North Oakland
encompasses downtown and separate Berkeley, California and Emeryville
neighborhoods. West Oakland is the area between downtown and the bay,
partially surrounded by the Port of Oakland.
Another broad geographical distinction is between "the hills" and
"the Flatlands" (or "the flats"). The Flatlands are historically the
working class neighborhoods located in the relatively flat areas closest
to San Francisco Bay, and the Hills are the upper-middle / upper-class
neighborhoods of the hillside along the Northeast side. from the city.
East of the hills, the division of the flats is not only a feature of
the city of Oakland, but extends beyond the borders of Oakland into
neighboring communities at the urban core of the East Bay. Downtown and
West Oakland are located entirely in the Flatlands, while North and East
Oakland incorporate Hills and Flatlands neighborhoods.
Most public schools in Oakland are operated by the Oakland Unified
School District (OUSD), which covers the entire city of Oakland; Due to
financial hardships and administrative misconduct, it has been in
custody by the state of California since 2002.
Overall, OUSD schools have performed poorly for years. In
the 2005 STAR test results, over 50 percent of students taking the test
performed "below basic," while only 20 percent performed at least
"proficient" in the English section of the test. Some individual schools
have much better performance than the city-wide average, for example,
over half of the 2005 students at Hillcrest Elementary School performed
at the "advanced" level on the English portion of the test, and of
students in Lincoln Elementary School performed on the "advanced" level
in the math portion.
Several factors have been blamed for poor performance, including an
ineffective top-heavy administrative structure and a student body that
is often poor or from a background of limited English ability.
The three high schools are larger High School secondary school
technique Oakland Oakland High School, and High School of the horizon.
The Oakland Military Academy, the Oakland School for the Arts, Unity
High School, and the Oakland Charter Academy are public charter schools
operating outside the domain of OUSD.
There are several private high schools. Notable persons include
Secular College Preparatory School and Head-Royce School, with tuitions
around $ 25,000 a year and Bishop O'Dowd's Catholic High School, Holy
Names High School and High School. St. Elizabeth High School. Catholic
schools in Oakland are operated by the Catholic Diocese of Oakland.
The Julia Morgan School for Girls is a private middle school for
girls housed on the Mills University campus.
Freeways, Bridges, and Tunnels
Oakland is served by several major highways; 80 of Interstate 580
from Interstate 880 to Interstate 980 to Interstate, Route 13 and State
Route 24 California State California. The planned chunks of freeways
were built at the Main Street exit of I-880 and along Hegenberger Avenue
near I-880; these freeway projects were abandoned. In 1989, the Loma
Prieta earthquake caused the double-decker segment of the Cypress
Freeway of I-880 to collapse, killing 42 people.
The old segment of the freeway had passed right through downtown West
Oakland, forming a psychological barrier; After the earthquake, the
freeway was rerouted around the perimeter of West Oakland and rebuilt
in 1997. The eastern span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge also
suffered earthquake damage when a 50-foot section of the upper deck
collapsed onto the lower deck; the damaged section was repaired a month
after the earthquake. As a result of the earthquake, a significant
seismic modification was carried out on the western span of the Bay
Bridge, and the eastern span scheduled for replacement, with the new
span projected to be completed in 2014.
Two underwater tunnels, Webster and Posey Tubes, connect Alameda Main
Island with downtown Oakland, coming over land into Chinatown.
Additionally, Park Street, the Fruitvale, and Main Street Bridges
connect Alameda with East Oakland.
In the foothills, the Leimert Bridge crosses Dimond Canyon,
connecting the Oakmore neighborhood with Park Boulevard. The Caldecott
Tunnel carries Highway 24 through the Oakland Hills, connecting Central
Contra Coast County with Oakland. The Caldecott has three bores, with a
The metropolitan area is served by the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)
from eight stations convenient for Oakland commuters. The system is
headquartered in Oakland, with major transfer hubs in MacArthur and
Oakland City Center / 12th Street Stations. BART headquarters was
located in a building above Lake Merritt Station until 2006, when it
relocated to Kaiser Center over seismic safety concerns.
Public bus service is provided by AC Transit, which was created from
the old privately owned key system. [The Alameda / Oakland Ferry
operates ferry service from Jack Square London to Alameda, California,
to San Francisco.
Oakland is served by the Oakland International Airport, which is
located 4 miles (6 km) south of downtown Oakland. One of three
international airports in the San Francisco Bay Area, the airlines
serving Oakland International provide service to numerous destinations
in the United States, as well as Mexico.
Serving the majority of cheap air travelers to other major cities,
the airport has proven a popular alternative to San
Francisco International, particularly thanks to a heavy presence of
airlines from the Southeast. It is now served by AirBART, which links
the airport with the Coliseum BART station, and a rail connector is
tentatively in the works.
The city has regional and long-distance passenger train service
provided by Amtrak, from a station located blocks from Jack London
Square served by Amtrak's Capitol corridor train, Coast Starlight
and San Joaquin routes. The Capitol Hall also trains to stop in a
second, a new Oakland Coliseum station. Amtrak's California Zephyr has
its western terminus at Emeryville Station, just outside of Oakland's
borders in the city of the same name.
Freight service, consisting primarily of mobile shipping containers
and from the Port of Oakland, is provided today by the Union of the
Pacific (which absorbed the South Pacific in the 1990s), and to a lesser
extent by the FE Northern Burlington Santa Claus (which now shares the
Union Pacific tracks between Richmond and Oakland).
Historically, Oakland was served by several railroads. In addition to
the transcontinental line (the "overland") of the South Pacific, there
was also the Santa Fe (whose Oakland terminal was actually in
Emeryville), the Western Pacific Railroad (who built a jetty adjacent to
the SP), and the Northern Sacramento Railroad (eventually absorbed by
the Western Pacific which in turn was absorbed by UP in AD 80).
As one of the three major shipping ports on the American West Coast,
the Port of Oakland is the largest port in the San Francisco Bay and the
fourth busiest container port in the United States. It was one of the
earliest ports to switch to containerizing, thereby displacing San
Francisco that it never modernized its old waterfront.
Oakland, California has seven sister cities, as noted by the
international sister cities:
- Dalian (China)
- Fukuoka (Japan)
- Nakhodka (Russia)
- Ocho Rios (Jamaica)
- Sekondi Takoradi, Ghana
- Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)
- Agadir (Morocco)