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Alphabetical listing of zip code directory starting with letter O. You may notice that some cities share exactly the same name but located within different states. For detail, please click on the link below to see each city beginning with O.

Oakland (California)

Oakland. It is a city in California located in the eastern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States.

History

The first recorded residents were the Huchiun tribe, belonging to a linguistic group later called the Ohlone (a Miwok word meaning "western people"). In Oakland, they were heavily concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters San Francisco Bay at Emeryville.

Oakland, along with the rest of California, was claimed for the Spanish king by explorers from New Spain in 1772. In the early 19th century, the area that later became Oakland (along with most of the East Bay), was granted to Luís María Peralta by the Spanish royal government for his San Antonio ranch. The award was confirmed by the successor's Mexican Republic upon its independence from Spain.

The area of the ranch that is occupied today downtown and extending over into the adjacent part of Alameda, California (originally not an island, but a peninsula), included a woodland of oak trees. This area was called Encinal by the Peraltas, a Spanish word that means "Oakland", the origin of the last city's name. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio María and Vicente. They would open the land to the settlement of American settlers, loggers, European whalers, and fur-traders.

Settlement and full-scale development occurred in following California which was conquered by the United States during the Mexican-American War, and the California Gold Rush in 1848. The original settlement which is now the center of the city was called "Against the Coast" and initially included within Contra Coast County before Alameda County was established on March 25, 1853. The California state legislature incorporated the city of Oakland on May 4, 1852.

The city and its surroundings grew rapidly with the railways, becoming a major rail terminus in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific built the Oakland Long Pier at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. The Long Pier served as both the terminus of the transcontinental railroad as well as the local commuter trains (later, southern) from the central Pacific.

The Central Pacific also established one of its largest rail yards and maintenance facilities in West Oakland which continued to be a major local employer under the South Pacific well into the 20th century. The South Pacific Major Depot in Oakland was the 16th Street Station located at 16th and Timber which (2006-7) is currently being partially restored as part of a redevelopment project.

A number of horsecar and cable car lines were built in Oakland in the latter half of the 1800s. The first streetcar lines set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, and other electrical lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. Various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired and consolidated by Francis "Borax" Smith when it eventually became known as the dominant system, the forerunner of today's owned AC public transit. In addition to its system of streetcars in the East Bay, the key system also ran commuter trains to its own pier and ferries to San Francisco, in competition with the South Pacific.

Upon completion of the Bay Bridge, both companies operated their commuter trains on the south side of the lower deck direct to San Francisco. The dominant system in its early days was actually partly a real estate company, with the transit part serving to help open up new zones for buyers. Key Investors (incorporated as the "Real Estate Syndicate") also established two large hotels in Oakland, one of which survives as the Claremont Resort. The other, which burned down in the early 1930s, was the route's key inn, located at which is now Grand and West Broadway. From 1904 to 1929 The real estate syndicate also ran a major amusement park in North Oakland called Idora Park.

Oakland's original grade upon its incorporation lay south of today's major intersection of St. Paul Avenue, Broadway and 14th Street. The town's gradually annexed farmland and settlements to the east and north. Oakland's rise to industrial prominence and its subsequent need for a port led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902 creating the "island" of nearby town Alameda, California. In 1906 its population doubled with refugees made homeless after the San Francisco earthquake and fire who had fled to Oakland. In 1915, a Chevrolet plant was opened on Oakland's southern border. Before 1920 Oakland was the home of numerous manufacturing industries, including metals, canneries, bakeries, automobiles, and shipbuilding.

The 20s

The 1920s were economic boom years in the United States as a whole, and in California especially. Economic growth was fueled by the general postwar recovery, as well as oil discoveries in Los Angeles, and the widespread introduction of the automobile. Oakland grew significantly in the 1920s. According to the Oakland Tribune yearbook for 1925, more houses were built from 1921 to 1924 than in the period 1907 to 1920. Many of the single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built in the 1925s. 1920s. The large city center of many office buildings was built in the 1920s, and reflects the architectural styles of the time.

Postwar years

Soon after the war, the shipbuilding and automobile industries virtually evaporated, as did the jobs that came with it. Many who came to the city did not leave and decided to make their new home in Oakland. Meanwhile, many of the city's more affluent residents left after the war to move into newly developing suburbs east of the foothills while many manual targets moved to adjacent cities such as San Leandro and Alameda, part of a nationwide phenomenon of white flight.

During this period, the freeway system was built and the key system was dismantled. The largest high-rise was built on the west side of Lake Merritt, the Kaiser Permanente headquarters building (the industry, not the HMO). Also in this era, the seedy, cut-down area at the foot of Broadway was transformed into Jack London Square. A TV broadcast station was established there, today's KTVU.

Nonetheless, by the late 1960s, Oakland, which had been quite prosperous and affluent before the war, encountered a population that was increasingly poor and black.

Geography and climate

Geography

Oakland is located about 37 ° 48 'north, 122 ° 15' west (37.8, - 122.25), GR1 in the longitudinal center of California, on the east side of the San Francisco Bay.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 78.2 mi² (202.4 km²). 56.1 miles (145.2 km²) of it is land and 22.1 miles (57.2 km²) of it (28.28 percent) is water.

Oaklanders most widely refer to their city's terrain as "the flatlands" and "the hills," which on top of even recent waves of gentrification have also been a deep economic landmark of Oakland divide, with "the hills" being more common communities. tributaries. About two-thirds of Oakland lies within the flat plain of the San Francisco Bay, with one-half rising into the foothills and the East Bay Hills range.

Climate

Oakland's climate is characterized by arid temperate and seasonal Mediterranean climate. More specifically, it has properties found in nearby coastal cities such as San Francisco, California and inland cities such as San Jose, California, so it is hotter than San Francisco and cooler than San Jose. While it does not adjoin the Pacific Ocean proper, its position on San Francisco Bay through the Golden Gate directly means that the city gets significant cooling maritime fog during the summer. It is far enough away, although the fog is often consumed by noon, allowing it to have stereotypically sunny California days.

The National Weather Service has two official weather stations in Oakland: Oakland International Airport and the Oakland Museum (established 1970).

Demography

As of the census of 2000, there were 399,484 people, 150,790 households, and 86,402 families residing in the city. The population density was 7,126.6 / mi (2,751.4 / km²). There were 157,508 housing units at an average density of 2,809.8 / mi (1,084.8 / km²). The racial makeup of the city was 35.66 percent African American, 23.52 percent White, 0.66 percent Native American, 15.23 percent Asian American, 0.50 percent Pacific Islander, 11.66 percent from other races, and 4.98 percent from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 21.89 percent of the population.

Estimates from the United States of America US Census Bureau. 2005 show that the African American is 31.00 percent, 26.10 percent White, the Native American 0.60 percent, the Asian American 16.40 percent, the Pacific Islander 0.90 percent, 14.00 percent other races, and 4.80 percent from two or more races. The Hispanic or Latino of any race was 25.00 percent of the population.

The African American population has been since the mid-1980s, while the Latino population has been growing. Oakland is one of the most ethnically diverse and integrated cities in the country.

There were 150,790 households out of which 28.6 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0 percent were married parents living together, 17.7 percent had a female head of household with no husband present, and 42.7 percent were non- families 32.5 percent of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6 percent have someone older than 65 years of age. The median household size was 2.60 and the median family size was 3.38.

An Urban Institute analysis of the US Census 2000 numbers showed that Oakland has the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians among the 50 largest cities in the US, behind San Francisco and Seattle. Same-sex couples are 2.94, who live in Oakland as in the typical American city, the urban institute analysis found. According to the same study, Oakland has the nation's largest population of lesbian couples.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.0 percent under the age of 18, 9.7 percent from 18 to 24, 34.0 percent from 25 to 44, 20.9 percent from 45 to 64, and 10.5 percent. one hundred who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $ 40,055, and the median income for a family was $ 44,384. Males had a median income of $ 37,433 versus $ 35,088 for females. The per capita rent for the city was $ 21,936. About 16.2 percent of families and 19.4 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of whom are under 18 years of age and 13.1 percent of those are over 65 years of age.

Newspaper

The Oakland Tribune published its first newspaper on February 21, 1874. The Tribune Tower, which sports a clock, is one of Oakland's landmarks. At key hours throughout the day (8:00 am, noon, 5:00 pm), the clock tower clarion plays a variety of classical melodies, which change on a daily basis.

The East Bay Express, most notable for putting agent Gary Coleman on the ballot for governor in the 2003 California recall election, is based in Emeryville and is distributed throughout Oakland.

Attractions

  • Oakland Museum of California
  • Chabot space and science center
  • Paramount Theater
  • Chinatown
  • London Cat Square
  • Lake Merritt
  • Children's fairyland
  • McAfee Coliseum, home to the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League, and the Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball
  • Oracle Arena (since November 10, 2006, formerly Oakland Arena), directly adjacent to the McAfee Coliseum, home to the National Basketball Association's Golden State Warriors
  • Dunsmuir House
  • Knowland State Park Arboretum, home of the Oakland Zoo
  • USS Potomac, Franklin Delano Roosevelt's presidential yacht
  • Guillermo José McInnes Botanical Garden and Campus Arboretum, located on the campus of the University of the Mills
  • Mountain View Cemetery, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and the resting place of many famous Californians
  • Homemade Pardee
  • Sequoia Regional Park
  • Sibley Park
  • Rosewood House Asian Art Museum
  • Oakland Public Library
  • Morcom Rose Garden Best from July through October

Sports and teams

Sports

  • Baseball
  • Football
  • Basketball

Equipment

  • Oakland Oaks, League of the Pacific Coast Baseball, 1903 - 1955. (The oaks played at Oak Park in Emeryville, California after )
  • Oakland Oaks, American Basketball League, 1962.
  • Oakland Oaks, the American Association of Basketball, 1967 - 1969.
  • Oakland Seals, major league hockey, 1967 - 1976.
  • Oakland Clipper, American Football League, 1968.
  • Oakland Stompers, American Football League, 1978.
  • Oakland Raiders, United States Football League, 1983 - 1985.
  • Oakland Roller Skates, International Hockey, 1993 - 1996.

Neighborhoods

The common large neighborhood divisions in the city are "Downtown Oakland," "East Oakland," "North Oakland," and "West Oakland." East Oakland actually encompasses more than half the Oakland area, stretching from Lake Merritt southeast to San Leandro, California. North Oakland encompasses downtown and separate Berkeley, California and Emeryville neighborhoods. West Oakland is the area between downtown and the bay, partially surrounded by the Port of Oakland.

Another broad geographical distinction is between "the hills" and "the Flatlands" (or "the flats"). The Flatlands are historically the working class neighborhoods located in the relatively flat areas closest to San Francisco Bay, and the Hills are the upper-middle / upper-class neighborhoods of the hillside along the Northeast side. from the city. East of the hills, the division of the flats is not only a feature of the city of Oakland, but extends beyond the borders of Oakland into neighboring communities at the urban core of the East Bay. Downtown and West Oakland are located entirely in the Flatlands, while North and East Oakland incorporate Hills and Flatlands neighborhoods.

Education

Most public schools in Oakland are operated by the Oakland Unified School District (OUSD), which covers the entire city of Oakland; Due to financial hardships and administrative misconduct, it has been in custody by the state of California since 2002.

Overall, OUSD schools have performed poorly for years. In the 2005 STAR test results, over 50 percent of students taking the test performed "below basic," while only 20 percent performed at least "proficient" in the English section of the test. Some individual schools have much better performance than the city-wide average, for example, over half of the 2005 students at Hillcrest Elementary School performed at the "advanced" level on the English portion of the test, and of students in Lincoln Elementary School performed on the "advanced" level in the math portion.

Several factors have been blamed for poor performance, including an ineffective top-heavy administrative structure and a student body that is often poor or from a background of limited English ability.

The three high schools are larger High School secondary school technique Oakland Oakland High School, and High School of the horizon. The Oakland Military Academy, the Oakland School for the Arts, Unity High School, and the Oakland Charter Academy are public charter schools operating outside the domain of OUSD.

There are several private high schools. Notable persons include Secular College Preparatory School and Head-Royce School, with tuitions around $ 25,000 a year and Bishop O'Dowd's Catholic High School, Holy Names High School and High School. St. Elizabeth High School. Catholic schools in Oakland are operated by the Catholic Diocese of Oakland.

The Julia Morgan School for Girls is a private middle school for girls housed on the Mills University campus.

Transport

Freeways, Bridges, and Tunnels

Oakland is served by several major highways; 80 of Interstate 580 from Interstate 880 to Interstate 980 to Interstate, Route 13 and State Route 24 California State California. The planned chunks of freeways were built at the Main Street exit of I-880 and along Hegenberger Avenue near I-880; these freeway projects were abandoned. In 1989, the Loma Prieta earthquake caused the double-decker segment of the Cypress Freeway of I-880 to collapse, killing 42 people.

The old segment of the freeway had passed right through downtown West Oakland, forming a psychological barrier; After the earthquake, the freeway was rerouted around the perimeter of West Oakland and rebuilt in 1997. The eastern span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge also suffered earthquake damage when a 50-foot section of the upper deck collapsed onto the lower deck; the damaged section was repaired a month after the earthquake. As a result of the earthquake, a significant seismic modification was carried out on the western span of the Bay Bridge, and the eastern span scheduled for replacement, with the new span projected to be completed in 2014.

Two underwater tunnels, Webster and Posey Tubes, connect Alameda Main Island with downtown Oakland, coming over land into Chinatown. Additionally, Park Street, the Fruitvale, and Main Street Bridges connect Alameda with East Oakland.

In the foothills, the Leimert Bridge crosses Dimond Canyon, connecting the Oakmore neighborhood with Park Boulevard. The Caldecott Tunnel carries Highway 24 through the Oakland Hills, connecting Central Contra Coast County with Oakland. The Caldecott has three bores, with a fourth planned.

Total transit

The metropolitan area is served by the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) from eight stations convenient for Oakland commuters. The system is headquartered in Oakland, with major transfer hubs in MacArthur and Oakland City Center / 12th Street Stations. BART headquarters was located in a building above Lake Merritt Station until 2006, when it relocated to Kaiser Center over seismic safety concerns.

Public bus service is provided by AC Transit, which was created from the old privately owned key system. [The Alameda / Oakland Ferry operates ferry service from Jack Square London to Alameda, California, to San Francisco.

Air

Oakland is served by the Oakland International Airport, which is located 4 miles (6 km) south of downtown Oakland. One of three international airports in the San Francisco Bay Area, the airlines serving Oakland International provide service to numerous destinations in the United States, as well as Mexico.

Serving the majority of cheap air travelers to other major cities, the airport has proven a popular alternative to San Francisco International, particularly thanks to a heavy presence of airlines from the Southeast. It is now served by AirBART, which links the airport with the Coliseum BART station, and a rail connector is tentatively in the works.

Lane

The city has regional and long-distance passenger train service provided by Amtrak, from a station located blocks from Jack London Square served by Amtrak's Capitol corridor train, Coast Starlight and San Joaquin routes. The Capitol Hall also trains to stop in a second, a new Oakland Coliseum station. Amtrak's California Zephyr has its western terminus at Emeryville Station, just outside of Oakland's borders in the city of the same name.

Freight service, consisting primarily of mobile shipping containers and from the Port of Oakland, is provided today by the Union of the Pacific (which absorbed the South Pacific in the 1990s), and to a lesser extent by the FE Northern Burlington Santa Claus (which now shares the Union Pacific tracks between Richmond and Oakland).

Historically, Oakland was served by several railroads. In addition to the transcontinental line (the "overland") of the South Pacific, there was also the Santa Fe (whose Oakland terminal was actually in Emeryville), the Western Pacific Railroad (who built a jetty adjacent to the SP), and the Northern Sacramento Railroad (eventually absorbed by the Western Pacific which in turn was absorbed by UP in AD 80).

Sea

As one of the three major shipping ports on the American West Coast, the Port of Oakland is the largest port in the San Francisco Bay and the fourth busiest container port in the United States. It was one of the earliest ports to switch to containerizing, thereby displacing San Francisco that it never modernized its old waterfront.

Sister cities

Oakland, California has seven sister cities, as noted by the international sister cities:

  • Dalian (China)
  • Fukuoka (Japan)
  • Nakhodka (Russia)
  • Ocho Rios (Jamaica)
  • Sekondi Takoradi, Ghana
  • Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)
  • Agadir (Morocco)

 

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