Somalia (Geography), Equator goes through the southern part of the country
and all of Somalia has a dry and hot tropical climate. There are two rainy
seasons and two dry seasons, and it is of great importance to the conditions of
life when the rainy seasons set in; one of them may be completely absent
(see intertropical convergence zone). Most rivers are only periodically
aquatic, wadier; Along with the two largest, Jubba and Shabeelle,
there are stretches of continuous forest belts. NE Somalia is very dry with
desert and bush steppes, but on the high plains and over the mountains towards
NV there is more rain and there is also forest. In southern Somalia, there is
also a limited amount of rainfall, and scattered acacia forest is widespread.
Somalis are a Hamitic people, totaling 6-7 million. people, of which
approximately 4 million lives in Somalia and 2 million. in Ogaden on the other side of
the border with Ethiopia. In addition, hundreds of thousands in Djibouti and
northern Kenya, in addition to refugees in other neighboring countries and in
the West. Almost the entire population of Somalia is Sunni Muslims and follows
the Shafi'ite law school.
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population pyramid and resident density about this country.
The Somalis are divided into six clans, which are again divided into
sub-clans, genealogies, diya groups and families. According
to the traditions, the clan families of Hawiye, Dir, Ishaaq and Darod
have the same mythical ancestor; they are predominantly nomadic, live in
the northern part of the country and constitute approximately 85% of the population,
Ishaaq and Darod together only half. Hawiye lives in central Somalia north of
Shabeelle and on the coast around the cities of Baraawe and Marka, where the dir
group is also located. The southern clans, Digil and Rahanweyn,
lives especially between Jubba and Shabeelle and also has common mythical
ancestor. These clans generally have a somewhat weaker social position. They
feed on a mixture of farming and crafts (blacksmiths, shoemakers, hairdressers)
as well as any trade and nomadic animal husbandry.
Thus, there is a certain division of labor between the clans, and owning
camels and being a nomad is associated with the highest prestige. There is also
a distinct division of labor between the sexes, where the men primarily take
care of the camels and cattle of the genus. Polygamy is widespread, and a man
who can afford it can have two, three or four wives. It is the women who take
care of the family's tent or hut, and they have the daily responsibilities of
the children, the smaller domestic animals (sheep and goats) and the family's
food supply; moreover, they are responsible for the sale of camel milk on the
market. Traditionally, the oldest men have taken care of the entire family, and
marriage is an important part of the social and economic system as an alliance
between two people and two families.
Ca. 80% of the population lives in rural areas, and although extensive
population shifts have occurred in the 1990's as a result of the civil war and
new developments in the business structure, genus and nomadic life remain
central to a large majority of Somalis. Even children who grow up in the city
will often spend some time in the countryside with the genus and its animals.
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Livestock breeding is the dominant profession, and nomadism is the dominant
way of life. Live animals are one of the most important export goods. The
Italians built banana plantations along the rivers in the southern part of the
country, and for some years bananas were another important export
commodity. Especially in ancient times, the resin collected from the acacia
trees was also important.
The nomads' in-depth knowledge of nature and its possibilities is a
prerequisite for the functioning of the self-sufficiency community. The seasonal
migrations depend on the animals included in the flocks and they are arranged
according to the grazing conditions and the access to the irrigation of the
animals (ie rainfall conditions and wells). For the survival of the nomads in
the arid and harsh climate, the camels are essential. The camels can wander
through the desert for 20 days without water, and since camel milk is often the
only nutrition of the nomads during the long hikes, they are a crucial
protection against hunger and thirst.
Not all families have camels, and many combine animal husbandry with the
cultivation of selected crops in addition to trading. Actual peasantry is only
widespread in the most humid river valleys and wadis and moreover spread between
Jubba and Shabeelle. In total, less than 2% of the land is cultivated; the main
crops are hardy millet varieties, corn and beans.
Traditionally, nomadic migration patterns, along with port cities such
as Mogadishu, Kismayu, Baraawe, Marka, Berbera and Boosaaso, have been the
central parts of the infrastructure. The country has no railways and all heavy
transport takes place by trucks on very bad roads; lack of maintenance and the
1990's wars have worsened transport conditions. Air transport is therefore of
great importance and there are many smaller airports.