Vietnam - geography
Vietnam - geography, The physical conditions naturally divide the country
into different regions. To the north lies the fertile delta of the Red River (Song
Hongs), bordered by mountains that separate the lowlands from China and
Laos. The Annamite Chain (Annongite Chain, Truong Song) stretches
south, where the lowlands become a narrow fringe, and the passage between north
and south narrows completely at Hai Van, a high-altitude pass in central
Vietnam. South of the pass, the mountain range gradually spreads to a mighty
plateau, Tay Nguyen, which is replaced by a lowland with the large, branched
delta of the Mekong River.
To the north, the climate is subtropical with fairly cool winters. To the
south it is tropical with average temperatures above 25 °C all year round. The
SW monsoon causes heavy rain in May-October, and the country is in a hurricane
belt, which mainly hits in the SW and to the north. Among other things. in 2000
there were major floods in the Mekong Delta. The inaccessible rainforests of the
highlands still contain rare animal species (see Vu Quang ox).
Population. The majority of the ethnically composed population lives
in the very densely populated lowlands of the deltas and along the coast. During
the Vietnam War, many fled from the war zones, south toward the cities and north
out of Hanoi. After the reunification in 1976, relocations of up to DKK 10
million were planned. people; of which approximately 4 million until 1992 moved to
so-called new economic zones. Since then, migration has become a more individual
matter. Population growth is declining; through the 1990's from 2.8% to 1.7% per
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population pyramid and resident density about this country.
Industries. About 75% of the population lives in the countryside
(2001), and agriculture remains the country's mainstay. The form of cultivation
is very labor intensive and the productivity is low. An increasing proportion of
the rural population is employed in small-scale production, trade and service,
and migration to the cities is growing.
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see song lyrics and singer about this country.
All infrastructure was destroyed during the war and communication between
North and South has been completely inadequate. Roads, railways and ports are
now being expanded at a rapid pace, especially after foreign aid grew from 1994.
The railway from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City has been restored and is
expanding; this also applies to the major highways, first and foremost Highway 1
between north and south. Ports, river ports and airports are also being built,
even in remote areas.
Vietnam remains among the poorest countries in Asia, but since the early
1990's there has been significant economic growth (8% per year on average) and
the country is on its way out of the group of the very poorest countries. During
the same period, de facto privatization of agriculture took place. From
being dominated by rice cultivation, it has increasingly been supplemented with
sales crops. At the same time, however, rice production has increased
significantly due to improved varieties and increased use of fertilizers. The
cultivation is still a very labor-intensive process, where the rice is planted
and harvested manually several times a year in the irrigated delta areas. Other
important crops are sugar, fruits and vegetables, cassava, cassava, corn and
coconut. From 2000, Vietnam became the world's second largest rice
exporter; products such as coffee (Vietnam became the world's third largest
coffee exporter in 2000), peanuts, rubber and tobacco are also sold on the world
The forest area has been halved since World War II, and in 1992 the export of
timber was banned; however, the ban is not consistently complied with. Fisheries
are an important source of income for both local consumption and exports.
During the 1990's, significant oil production was built up, especially from
offshore fields in the South China Sea. The known reserves are quite small
(smaller than Denmark's), but they are utilized at a rapid pace, and crude oil
is among the most important export goods (while oil products are
imported). Energy is also produced from an increasing number of hydropower
plants, and electrification has expanded significantly. The expansion of
hydropower has in a number of cases led to the relocation of the local
The industry has been of increasing importance after the reforms of 1986 (doi
moi renovation) placed more emphasis on the production of consumer goods,
and opened up to private enterprises and increasing exports. Foreign investment
increased especially from 1990, when Vietnam opened up more relations with the
West. International aid increased significantly after the United States
recognized Vietnam in 1994. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and
the Asian Development Bank, together with donor countries such as Japan,
Denmark, Australia, France and Sweden, provide significant assistance.
The employment problem puts constant pressure on societal resources; the
workforce is increased by approximately 1 mio. people a year. Around 1990,
unemployment rose as the country's economy was in transition; many returned from
studies and work in Eastern Europe, while soldiers in Cambodia returned
home. The faster growth in the 1990's reduced unemployment to 5-6%, but rural
underemployment and growth in the informal sector of small-scale production and
trade obscure the picture.
Tourism. Since the 1990's, Vietnam has opened up as a tourist country
and the country can offer many sights, beautiful landscapes, historical
monuments and good bathing beaches. The main attractions include the highlands
in the north with ethnic minorities and beautiful rice terraces, Ha Long Bay
with its rare and beautiful rock formations, Huês citadel and imperial tombs,
bathing beaches at Nha Trang, the Mekong Delta and the two cities Hanoi and Ho
Chi Minh City each with their own distinctive features.. In addition, there are
pagodas all over the country, most beautiful in the north. The tourists
approaching 2 million. per year, came initially from France and the United
States, but now increasingly from China, Taiwan and Japan.