Argentina after Perón

Argentina after Perón

After the flight of Perón, who retired to Madrid, and the provisional presidency of E. Lonardi, one of the leaders of the anti-Peronist uprising, in November 1955 a coup d’état brought PE Aramburu to power, who issued provisions for the return to democratic normality. and restored the constitution of 1853, canceling the one promulgated in 1949. Although the news relating to the defrauding and looting of the treasury had been made public, the working masses, who under the presidency of Perón had seen their standard of living improve without conflict or class struggle, they remained fanatically linked to the deposed dictator, creating difficulties for the new government and those that succeeded him. The elections of March 1958 led to the presidency of the Republic Argentina Frondizi, exponent of the Unión cívica radical intransigente, one of the two branches into which the radical party had split. Frondizi proved to be able to juggle difficulties coming from various fronts: from the military, divided between coup leaders and legalists in favor of government constitutionality; by the Peronists and the Communists, who attacked its economic policy, in particular the absence of social reforms and the reintegration of many privileges taken from the Church by Perón; by entrepreneurs, unhappy with the restriction of credits; by his own party, which accused him of failing the electoral platform based on the planned state economy. His attempt to contain inflation and to heal the economy through a policy of severe austerity and the search for balance met with acclaim abroad, especially in the United States. from which came loans and capital investments intended above all to increase oil production, which in 1959 increased by 30%. In 1960 the ‘Bariloche declaration’, signed by Frondizi and the American president DD Eisenhower, reaffirmed the principle of continental solidarity and marked the return to normal relations between Argentina and the United States. For Argentina public policy, please check proexchangerates.com.

However, the economic crisis was not resolved and the trade deficit remained heavy. When in the regional elections of March 1962 the Peronist party Frente Justicialista, readmitted into the law after seven years of clandestine life, obtained an unexpected victory, the military forced Frondizi to cancel the elections and resign. Having yielded only to the first of two requests, the president was arrested and confined. He was succeeded by JM Guido, who governed for a year supported by the coup military. In the elections of July 1963, in which the Peronist party was again prevented from participating, Arturo Illía was elected as candidate of the Unión cívica radical del pueblo. The new president canceled contracts with oil companies and refused credits from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. However, the worsening of the economic situation, despite two exceptional wheat harvests in 1964-65, and the attempt at reconciliation towards the Peronists, to whom Illía allowed to take part in the congressional elections of 1965, led the military to a new coup d’etat (1966) which led to the establishment of the dictatorship of General JC Onganía. The dissolution of Parliament, the abolition of political parties, the authoritarian style of government alienated the consensus of the Church, intellectuals and trade unions to the new regime, but not those of high finance and foreign financiers. The opposition spread and armed groups dedicated to urban warfare and terrorism were formed, the most active of which was the Ejército revolucionario del pueblo. Meanwhile, strong tensions in the Peronist movement led to a split, within the Confederación general del trabajo, between orthodox Peronists and neo-operonists, lined up further to the left. In June 1970, a new military coup replaced Onganía by General RM Levingston. But the latter, unable to cope with the situation, which had become chaotic also due to the continuous strikes, soon resigned. In June 1970, a new military coup replaced Onganía by General RM Levingston. But the latter, unable to cope with the situation, which had become chaotic also due to the continuous strikes, soon resigned. In June 1970, a new military coup replaced Onganía by General RM Levingston. But the latter, unable to cope with the situation, which had become chaotic also due to the continuous strikes, soon resigned.

During the same year, the cost of living had increased by 20%. The stabilization plan launched in 1966 , hinging on the short-term control of monetary, credit and wage policy, it had initially led to a reduction in inflation, increasing the rate of development and reducing the government deficit. Subsequently, however, the reduction of incentives for farmers and the introduction of heavy taxes on the export of meat – measures adopted with the aim of directing the supply of livestock towards the national market – led to a worsening of the balance of payments. The result was a strong tightening of domestic supply and a significant rise in prices. In this context of economic deficit and social disorder, General Argentina Lanusse (1971), who succeeded Levingston, intended to start a work of national pacification. He freed the political prisoners and announced the country’s return to constitutional normality. But the elections called for March 1973 marked the success of the Peronism which had presented as candidate H. Cámpora, faithful lieutenant of Perón.

Argentina after Perón