Austria Crops

Austria Crops

The surface of the productive land of the Austrian Republic is relatively high, taking into account that it is essentially a mountainous state; it represents 89.7% of the total area, against 10.3% uncultivated (census 1900); while in Switzerland the unproductive land occupies 22.4% of the territory. These reach their maximum in the northern limestone Alps (Salzburg and Austrian Prealps), which have 25.4% of uncultivated areas and on the high massifs of the High Tauern (25%) and in the Tyrol (24.8%); the lowest are found in the subalpine area (3.1%), on the Styrian hills (4%), in the large inland basins of the Eastern Alps (7%). If we exclude Vienna, only Tyrol and Salzburg have a minimum production area with 75.2 and 84% of the total, while the other provinces approach or exceed 90%.

However, these productive areas are for the most part represented by woods (41.84% of the entire surface of the state), as well as by high mountain pastures (17.3%), so that a real more or less intensive cultivation remains only the 40.8% of the total area, of which 12.3% is occupied by artificial lawns.

According to Top-medical-schools, from 1900 to 1924, due to the decrease in the number of workers, the area of ​​cultivated fields decreased by ha. 1,831,200 in 1913, to 1,700,300 in 1924 (- 1.4%), and the decrease was strong especially in Upper Austria (- 2.3%); this is to the benefit of the alpine pastures which have grown overall in extension, from ha. 906,100 in 1913 to 943,700 in 1924; with a percentage that rises up to 5.7 in Upper Austria. So today there are just 1,909,400 ha for the entire state. of land truly cultivated with fields, vegetable gardens and vineyards; just over 29 ha. every 10 residents, instead of 50 of the ancient monarchy. It is in Lower Austria and Burgenland that crops cover an area that approaches or exceeds half of the total (48.6% and 54.1%); and in these two regions the cultivation of the vine also has a certain value. It dominates, along the Danube from Melk to the valley, as well as on the edge of the Vienna Basin and the Eastern Hills region, around Lake Neusiedl and Lower Mur. The total vineyard area is 51,300 ha. (0.7% of the state area), with a prevalence of white grapes. Its production of wines, which in 1910 was a total of 323,900 hl., Was reduced in 1924 to 305,400 (of which 258,400 of white wines and 39,600 of reds and 7400 of wine), with a maximum production of 227,900 hl. in Lower Austria and 24,400 hl. in Styria. which in 1910 was a total of 323,900 hl., was reduced in 1924 to 305,400 (of which 258,400 of white wines and 39,600 of reds and 7400 of wine), with a maximum production of 227,900 hl. in Lower Austria and 24,400 hl. in Styria. which in 1910 was a total of 323,900 hl., was reduced in 1924 to 305,400 (of which 258,400 of white wines and 39,600 of reds and 7400 of wine), with a maximum production of 227,900 hl. in Lower Austria and 24,400 hl. in Styria.

If we exclude the vegetable gardens which cover only 1.1% of the total area, and which have some importance only in Vienna (14.6%) and Upper Austria (2.2%), the surface a fields, proper, occupied in 1924 a total of ha. 1,909,400, 22.7% of the total area (Switzerland 16.5%). In the Alpine area, due to the narrowness of the cultivable space and the natural altimetric limits (medium height of the fields 1300 m above sea level, maximum 1800 m, in Ober Gurgl in Tyrol, in the Ötz Valley), most of the fields are limited to the valley bottom. Add the different agricultural activity of the Alemannic element (Vorarlberg and western Tyrol) and of the Slavic one (Lower Styria and Carinthia) in comparison with the much more active Baiuvarian, the greater or lesser extension of the large estates (57% of possessions over 200 ha. in Salzburg, 26% in Lower Austria, 31% in Styria, 58% in Tyrol), and it will be understood how intensive cultivation is very different between the various regions of Austria. Thus we have values ​​of just 3% of the surface in the external limestone Alps, 2% in the tz Alps and in the Tauern, 9% in the Tyrolean valleys, while this value increases to 25% in the internal basins of the Eastern Alps, at 19, 5% in the pre-Alpine areas, 36.5% in the Styrian hills, 56% in the Vienna basin, 43.4% in the Danube plateau, where there are numerous areas in which intensive cultivation exceeds 50% of the ‘area. It follows that the provinces with the largest fields are Burgenland (50.9%) and Lower Austria (45.2%), while those with the greatest scarcity are Vorarlberg and Tyrol (3.4 and 5.9%); but, as has been said, in 1924, only ha of these fields were cultivated. 1,700,300, while in 1913 they had. 1,831,200. Of the various crops, the main one is that of cereals, among which wheat, which at the harvest of 1924 occupied 165,000 ha., Against 196,800 in 1913, and mixed with oats (292,600 ha.), As on the eastern spurs of the Alps and in the northern foothills, both together with rye (347,200 ha.), especially in the Danube area and on the Styrian hills; the cultivation of barley (ha. 119,600), on the other hand, is predominant in the foothills of Lower Austria and in the high mountains towards the limits of the crops. The average production per ha. it is quite strong, given the prevailing mountainous nature of the territory, especially for wheat, whose total income, in 1924, was around q. 11.8 per hectare. with a maximum in Styria of q. 15, 1 and a low of 9.8 in Salzburg. Styria also has a maximum intensity of production for oats (q. 14.5 per ha.) And rye (q. 13.8); while for barley it is the Tyrol (q. 13.5) and Lower Austria (q. 12.4) which have the greatest intensity of unit production. Compared to the cereal growing of the pre-war decade, the current one is lower, both for absolute production and for cultivated hectares; maize is an exception, the production of which increased by 244,000 quintals. The annual average 1904-13 was 14 million q. of cereals, while today it is less than 12 million. Even if we managed to return to the production of 14 million q., We would have only a quantity of q. 2.3 per residents, compared to 4.4 in the ancient monarchy, a quantity that barely served to cover the needs of domestic consumption. Nor is it easy to increase the intensity of production, both because a large part of the arable land is located above 800 meters above sea level, and due to the splitting of the funds in the hands of small owners not able to implement a crop improvement (515,000 owners own just over 1 ha. for each); there is therefore, with respect to the need for consumption, a requirement of almost 12 million q. yearly, which must be filled with imports from abroad.

The intensity of potato production has increased considerably since the war (from 93.6 q in 1913 to 98.4 per hectare in 1924), but it cannot be pushed beyond a certain limit for reasons of physical environment. In 1924 there were 167,400 ha. planted with potatoes, with a maximum in Lower Austria (94,000 ha.) and a minimum in the mountainous area of ​​Tyrol (3200 ha.), Salzburg (800 ha.) and Vorarlberg (300 ha.), with a total production of q. 14,772,500 i.e. of q. 98.4 per hectare, against an average of q. 12,500,000, or 90 per hectare, from the pre-war period. However, this makes only 155 kg available. per resident instead of 350 in the past, when the strong productions of Bohemia were used.

Sugar beet cultivation (overall 18,700 ha in 1924) is limited to Lower Austria (13,800 ha) and Burgenland (3,500 ha); Carinthia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg are absolutely missing. The production of 1924 was of q. 3,632,000 (238.9 per hectare), against an average of about 2 and a half million in the decade 1910-19. There would be about 110 kg per resident, compared to 215 in the ancient monarchy, which counted on the extensive crops of Hungary and Bohemia; while due to the physical conditions of the territory of the present republic, a greater extension of this crop is not possible.

Of the other industrial plants, flax occupied, in 1924, just 3,600 ha., Most of which in Upper and Lower Austria (1100 and 900 ha.), And hemp only 400 ha., In Upper and Lower Austria, in Styria and Carinthia, with a respective production of 34,400 and 3,700 q.; production completely insufficient for the needs of the country.

There is also very little production of hops for beer, which was grown for just 2,300 ha before the war. in Styria and 716 in Upper Austria, with a respective production of 13,000 and 3000 q. he nodded, and that today everything is being imported from Bohemia; while the production of mulberry trees, which took place in Istria, Dalmatia and Trentino, ceased entirely.

Fruit trees, especially apple, plum and cherry trees, are spreading in Upper and Lower Austria, in Styria, in Carinthia, in Vorarlberg; these regions already before the war produced about 1 million q. of pulp fruit and 100 thousand q. from the core, but the increase in production will not be enough, for several years, to compensate the Vienna market for products from Alto Adige, Istria and Dalmatia and above all from Bohemia.

The legumes, which are obtained especially in the orchards and gardens, which occupy a total of 817,000 ha., Are grown mainly in Upper and Lower Austria, in Styria and Carinthia, around the city centers, with a total production of 120,800 q., Against 164,300 of the pre-war period.

Austria Crops