Azerbaijan History

Azerbaijan History

Azerbaijan (Russian Azerbaijan) Region of the Transcaucasia (192,550 km 2 with 18.1 million residents), politically divided between the republic of the same name and Iran, which faces E on the Caspian Sea. The country includes: to the North, the extreme eastern section of the Caucasian range, which, beyond the summit of Bazardjuzju (4480 m), slopes down until it is reduced to mediocre heights in the Apšeron Peninsula ; to the South, a plateau, on average over 1500 m high, on which rise volcanoes (Sahand, 3722 m; Sabalan, 4811 m) and rugged massifs (Qara, 3370; Murov, 3740, Dali, 3630), the last branch of the Elburz chain. The plateau is crossed by rivers that flow into Lake Urmia (5000 km 2), while to the North it is engraved by the deep river valley Aras (Araks), which for a long stretch also marks the boundary between the Republic of Azerbaijan and Iran. The Caspian Sea washes the Azerbaijan for almost 600 km. The climate is mild, with temperatures similar to the Mediterranean ones, but in particular the rainfall (200-400 mm per year on average) shows more continental manifestations due to the scarce influence exerted by the Caspian Sea.

PREHISTORY

In the cave of Azïkh, in the Piccolo Caucasus, the oldest man-made site in central-northern Eurasia has been identified: the Acheulean levels, dated from 1 million to 400 thousand years ago, have returned hearths, stone tools, animal bone finds and the remains of the jaw of a pre-Neanderthalian man. In the Neolithic the Gobustan region became one of the centers of greatest diffusion in the Caucasus of the art of rock painting; during the Early Bronze Age (late 4th-3rd millennium BC) the culture of Kura-Arasse developed in Azerbaijan geometric. Between the Late Bronze and the beginning of the Iron Age (second half of the 2nd millennium-first half of the 1st millennium BC) important bronze production centers arose.

HISTORY

After having formed a separate state under the successors of the satrap Atropates, the Azerbaijan border land was disputed between Rome (then Byzantium) and Sassanid Persia. Occupied and Islamized by the Arabs since the century. 7th, it was part of the Caliphal Empire, then it was divided between local Iranian and Turkish dynasties. From the century 16 ° belonged to Safawid Persia, whose rulers had indeed in the Azerbaijan (to Ardabil) their cradle.

According to localcollegeexplorer, with the sec. 18 ° Russian pressure began to be felt, until the treaties of Gulistān (1813) and Turkmanciāi (1828), imposed by the Russia to Persia, they divided the to. in two parts, of which the eastern one remained in Persia, the western one passed to the Tsars. During the Second World War there. Persian was occupied by troops of the USSR, which favored the creation of an autonomist government. The question, submitted to the UN, was resolved in 1946 with an agreement between the USSR and Iran, which attributed autonomy to the Azerbaijan with the appointment of the governor by Tehran. Soviet troops were replaced by Iranian ones, but the autonomy of the region was effectively suppressed.

Dictionary of History

Azerbaijan State of Transcaucasia on the Caspian Sea, mostly inhabited by Shiite Muslim Azeris. Already the site of relevant prehistoric settlements, the Azerbaijan it was under the Achaemenid dominion (6th century BC), which spread Zoroastrianism there, then under the Seleucid one, until the Sasanian conquest in the 3rd century. After the Arab conquest (7th century), with the consequent Islamization, the to. was part of the caliphate, undergoing from the century. 11 ° the different Turkish-Mongol lords who took turns in the area. In the 16th century. it fell under the dominion of the Persian Safavids, who imposed Shiism on it, then of the Qajara dynasty until the 19th century. when, following the Russo-Persian wars, the eastern regions remained in Persia, while the western ones, corresponding to the current Republic, passed to the Russian Empire. Proclaimed independent after the collapse of tsarism, in April. 1920 the. it was occupied by the Bolshevik troops, declared a Soviet Socialist Republic and annexed to the USSR (1922). In 1991, the Azerbaijan he declared himself independent. In the same year, the attempted secession of Nagornyj Karabach (an autonomous province with an Armenian majority) led to a conflict with Armenia, which ended in 1994 without a definitive solution, fueling periodic clashes and violence in the region. In the early 21st century. the political forces heirs of the Communist Party dominated in Azerbaijan, first with H. Aliev (1923-2003), president of the Republic from 1993 to 2003, then with his son I. Aliev (b. 1961). he declared himself independent. In the same year, the attempted secession of Nagornyj Karabach (an autonomous province with an Armenian majority) led to a conflict with Armenia, which ended in 1994 without a definitive solution, fueling periodic clashes and violence in the region. In the early 21st century. the political forces heirs of the Communist Party dominated in Azerbaijan, first with H. Aliev (1923-2003), president of the Republic from 1993 to 2003, then with his son I. Aliev (b. 1961). he declared himself independent. In the same year, the attempted secession of Nagornyj Karabach (an autonomous province with an Armenian majority) led to a conflict with Armenia, which ended in 1994 without a definitive solution, fueling periodic clashes and violence in the region. In the early 21st century. the political forces heirs of the Communist Party dominated in Azerbaijan, first with H. Aliev (1923-2003), president of the Republic from 1993 to 2003, then with his son I. Aliev (b. 1961).

Azerbaijan History