Belarus History

Belarus History

From the end of the 10th century, part of the Grand Duchy of Kiev, the territory of the current Belarus, was progressively annexed to Lithuania. Occupied by the Germans (1918), it came under the control of the Bolsheviks who proclaimed the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic on 1 January 1919. In 1922 the Belarus participated in the constitution of the USSR, following its political events.

According to localcollegeexplorer, the nationalist tendency also emerged in Belarus in connection with the USSR crisis led on 25 August 1991 to the proclamation of independence; Belarus then joined the Commonwealth of Independent States (➔ CIS). Nuclear power after the dissolution of the USSR, Belarus joined the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in 1992. In the 1990s, conflicts over the institutional set-up and relations with Russia dominated domestic politics. The position of the President of the Republic A. Lukashenko prevailed, elected, for the first time by direct suffrage, in 1994, after the approval of the new Constitution. Lukashenko established a centralized and authoritarian regime and consolidated ties with Moscow; instead those with Europe worsened due to the repressive measures adopted in the country. The legislative elections (2000) sanctioned the victory of the candidates close to the president, but the opposition and international observers denounced intimidation and fraud. The correctness of the vote was questioned in the presidential elections (2001), which reconfirmed Lukashenko. The increasingly acute crisis in relations with European countries resulted in a new condemnation by the Council of Europe of human rights violations in Belarus in 2004. In the same year, a constitutional change allowed Lukashenko to run for a third term and the parliamentary elections saw the defeat of the opposition forces: serious irregularities in the vote produced street clashes with numerous arrests. International observers judged both the 2006 and 2010 presidential elections, which sanctioned Lukashenko’s fourth victory, and the 2008 and 2012 parliamentarians, in which all the seats in Parliament were assigned to members of his party, were irregular; in October 2015 both the parliamentarians of 2008 and 2012, in which all the seats in the Parliament were assigned to members of his party; in October 2015 both the parliamentarians of 2008 and 2012, in which all the seats in the Parliament were assigned to members of his party; in October 2015 Lukashenko predictably obtained his fifth presidential term, receiving 83.4% of the votes. A historic result was recorded in the parliamentary consultations held in September 2016, in which – for the first time in twenty years, and under pressure from the international community – two representatives of the opposition were elected to Parliament, while at the consultations of November 2019 all the 110 seats in the lower house were won by candidates considered related to President Lukashenko, and the opposition won no seats. The presidential elections held in August 2020 confirmed the president in office for a sixth term (80.2%).

Dictionary of History

Presidential Republic, Eastern European State, with the capital Minsk. Part of the Grand Duchy of Kiev from the end of the century. 10 °, the territory of the od. Belarus was gradually annexed, between the middle of the 13th and the middle of the 14th century, to Lithuania; then joined to Poland (1385), it passed under Russian sovereignty during the century. 18 °. In 1918 it was occupied by the Germans and in 1919 it came under the control of the Bolsheviks, who proclaimed it the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. In the same year, claimed by Warsaw, it was occupied by Polish forces, rejected by the intervention of the Red Army. In 1922 the Belarus participated in the constitution of the USSR, whose political events have followed since then. During the Second World War it was again occupied by the Germans (1941), suffering serious destruction, and liberated in 1944. Following the USSR crisis, in 1991 independence was proclaimed and the new Republic of Belarus joined the CIS (the federation of former Soviet republics). S. Šuškevič, a member of the Communist Party, was elected head of state and started a liberal restructuring of the country’s economy. Russia remained the most important interlocutor for Belarus in both the political and economic spheres; the strengthening of these ties was also pursued by A. Lukashenko, president of the Republic since 1994, who established a highly centralized and authoritarian regime. The elections of the following years, which always confirmed him in power (third term, 2006), took place amidst intimidation and violence and their validity was contested by both the internal opposition and international observers.

Belarus History