Brazil Architecture

Brazil Architecture and Literature

Architecture. – In the decade 2004-14 the Brazil experienced a phase of economic growth that created the conditions for urban renewal. Over 80% of Brazilians (160 million people) live in large metropolitan areas that still suffer from the contradictions of a tumultuous, unplanned urbanization process that has generated social imbalances and inequalities. The high density of favelas, the Brazilian slums, is a national problem that the Lula (2003-06, 2006-10) and Rousseff (2010-14) governments have tackled with an intensification of housing policies. In 2003 the Ministry of Cities granted the residents of the favelas ownership and regularization of housing. In 2006 the National Building Fund invested a billion reais in sanitation and environmental restoration and rehabilitation works and in 2007 thanks to the Programa de aceleração do crescimento (PAC), the four-year investment plan in the social housing sectors, of the public transport, energy, water and light, the redevelopment projects of the favelas were encouraged, the most significant of which was that of Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro, the largest slum in South America. Furthermore, in 2009 the Minha casa Minha vida program, for the construction and purchase of a house with state incentives, was also included in the financing plan of the PAC.

According to topmbadirectory, in addition to the recovery of the favelas, the years 2004-14 were characterized by urban development programs at the local level. In the education sector, the prefecture of São Paulo has established, under the direction of architects Alexandre Delijaicov, André Takiya, Wanderley Ariza, the CEUs (Centros Educacionais Unificados), public school complexes that include spaces for sport and culture, created in the peripheral areas of the city, which have joined the private network of the SESCs, the centers of the SErviço Social do Comércio established in 1946 to promote social coexistence. In the healthcare sector, the prefabricated reinforced concrete hospitals of Macapá and Belém by João Filgueiras Lima (Lelé) designed for Rede Sarah with bioclimatic criteria in compliance with the therapeutic needs of rehabilitation are architectural works. The twelve stadiums of the 2014 World Cup, built in major Brazilian cities, are also interesting examples of new architecture.

In the decade, a new generation of Brazilian architects emerged – Eduardo de Almeida, Brasil Arquitetura, Marcos Boldarini, Angelo Bucci (Spbr Arquitetos), Marcio Kogan (Studio MK27), MMBB, Metro Arquitetos, UNA Arquitetos, Apiacás Arquitetos – who knew how to reconcile social and environmental challenges with the tradition of modern Brazilian architecture, giving shape to residential buildings, cultural centers, museums, libraries and private homes, characterized by a marked sensitivity to the landscape, sustainability and care for materials.

Among the most significant works carried out in the decade stand out: the Auditório in the Ibirapuera park (2002-05) in São Paulo, the National Museum and Library (2006) in Brasilia by Oscar Niemeyer; the Museu do Pão (2008) in Ilópolis and the Praça das Artes (2012) in San Paolo by Brasil Arquitetura (Francisco Fanucci and Marcelo C. Ferraz); the Brazilian Library in the university city of Sao Paulo (2013) by Rodrigo Mindlin Loeb and de Almeida; the social and multipurpose housing complexes in the favelas by Nova Jaguaré (2008), Cantinho do Céu (2011), Paraisópolis (2012) in São Paulo by Boldarini Arquitetura e Urbanismo, SESC 24 de Maio in São Paulo by MMBB and Paulo Mendes da Rocha under construction. The architecture of private houses is also significant with the projects of UNA Arquitetos, Anderson Freitas (Apiacás Arquitetos), Bucci (Spbr Arquitetos), Kogan (MK27).

In recent years the Brazil has lost two of his teachers: Oscar Niemeyer (1907-2012) and João da Gama Filgueiras Lima, known as Lelé (1932-2014).

Literature. – The Brazil of recent years, in strong economic and social growth, has also seen an increase as regards cultural policy and the publishing market. Literary activity seems to have benefited, at least from a quantitative point of view, also thanks to the birth of numerous festivals and literary awards in different areas of the country. The spread of new technologies, the Internet and e-book readers in the lead, has helped to broaden the pool of readers and the means and opportunities for disseminating new works and new writers.

In the last ten years, therefore, if several consecrated authors have disappeared (as is the case of Bruno Tolentino, 1940-2007; Zélia Gattai, 1916-2008; Alberto de Cunha Melo, 1942-2007; Moacyr Scliar, 1937-2011; Millôr Fernandes, 1923-2012; Lêdo Ivo, 1924-2012; Autran Dourado, 1926-2012; Manoel de Barros, 1916-2014; Ariano Suassuna, 1927-2014; Ivan Junqueira, 1934-2014; João Ubaldo Ribeiro, 1941-2014), many others have continued to produce works. Among the narrators, at least Lygia Fagundes Telles (b.1923 ; O segredo e outras histórias de descoberta, 2012), Rubem Fonseca (b.1925 ; O seminarista, 2009, trad. It. Il seminarista, 2013; Amálgama, 2013), Dalton Trevisan (b.1925 ; O anão ea ninfeta, 2011), Lygia Bojunga (n. 1932; Querida, 2009), Chico Buarque (n. 1944; Leite spilled, 2009, trans. it. Latte versato, 2010), Milton Hatoum (n. 1952; Orfãos do Eldorado, 2008)., The islanded city, 2009), Carlos Nascimento Silva (n. 1937; The girl from here, 2008), Ana Miranda (n. 1951; Semiramis, 2014), Bernardo Carvalho (n. 1960; Reproduction, 2013), Patrícia Melo (n. 1962; Writing in the dark, 2011), the always prolific Paulo Coelho (n. 1947; Manuscript found in Accra, 2012, trans. it. Il manoscritto ritrovato ad Accra, 2012).

For poetry, among the already established authors, we should remember: Ferreira Gullar (b.1930), Gilberto Mendonça Teles (b.1931 ; Linear G, 2011), Carlos Nejar (b.1939; Poesia reunida, 2 vols., 2010), Antonio Carlos Secchin (b.1952) and Adriano Espínola (b.1952).

Among the new and very new ones, born between the Sixties and Seventies, some authors can be mentioned, often starting from blogs or other digital dissemination tools, such as Luiz Ruffato (n.1961 ; Inferno provisório, 2005), Alexei Bueno (n. 1963), Sérgio Rodrigues (b.1962), Miguel Sanches Neto (b.1965 ; Un amor anarquista, 2005), Marcelino Freire (b.1967), Joca Reiners Terron (b.1962; A tristeza extraordinária do leopardo-das- neves, 2013), Ronaldo Bressane (b. 1970; Mnemomáquina, 2014), Adriana Lisboa (b. 1970; Azul-corvo, 2010, trans. it. Corvino blue, 2013), Fabricio Carpinejar (b. 1972), Marcus Faustini (b. 1971), Daniel Pellizzari (b. 1974), Ferréz (pseud. of Reginaldo Ferreira da Silva, b. 1975; God went to lunch, 2012), Santiago Nazarian (b. 1977), João Paulo Cuenca (b. 1978), Cecilia Gian-netti (b. 1979), Daniel Galera (b. 1979).

Brazil Architecture