Army. – The military organization of Brazil is similar to that of the European standing armies. The supreme command of the land and sea forces rests with the President of the Republic who, however, in peacetime, exercises it through the Minister of War. The general staff of the army with one chief and two sub-chiefs also depends on these. The Brazilian army is organized into two main branches: 1. the front line army, which includes: the active or permanent army, the front line reserve, the auxiliary forces; 2. the second line army and its reserve.
The front line army is intended to train the mobilized units and defend the national territory, it is the military training school for young people recruited, by drawing lots, on the annual contingent or enrolled voluntarily. Auxiliary forces include gendarmerie contingents. The second line army has subsidiary duties. The active or standing army is distributed as follows: 5 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions; 1 mixed brigade; 1 Shore Artillery District.
Overall the Brazilian army includes the following units of the various weapons. Infantry: 13 regiments on 3 battalions and 1 machine gun company, 29 hunter battalions, 3 mounted infantry, 2 factory guard companies. The battalions have three companies: a fourth company is formed only in case of war. Cavalry: 15 independent regiments, 5 divisional regiments; all on 4 squadrons. Field artillery: 10 regiments of artillery mounted on 3 groups of 3 batteries; 5 regiments of divisional heavy artillery on 3 groups; 3 army heavy artillery regiments on 4 groups; 1 mixed artillery regiment; 5 groups of mountain artillery on 2 batteries, 6 groups of horse artillery on 2 batteries. Coastal artillery: 2 groups on 3 batteries; 3 groups on 2 batteries; 8 independent batteries. Engineers: 6 battalions out of 3 companies (except 1 which has 4); 1 railroad battalion; 1 railway company; 1 aviation company; 3 liaison squadrons. Special troops: 12 air force squadrons (see below); 1 assault tank company. Until 1926, however, some of the units listed above were not yet fully constituted or existed only in the state of cadres.
Military schools: 4 military colleges; military school of Rio de Janeiro, for officers of all arms; junior infantry sergeant school; training school for officers; military aviation school; high school of intendency and administration; veterinary school; school of application of the health service; staff school.
Main military establishments: Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre war arsenals; Rio de Janeiro cartridge and war artifice factory; black powder factory in Estrella (Rio de Janeiro state); Piquete chemical powder and explosives factory (state of Sao Paulo).
The recruitment is based on the general obligation system of citizens. However, for various reasons, only a part of the quota is incorporated, by drawing lots among the members.
The military obligations of citizens range from the 21st to the 44th year of age and are divided as follows: active army (1 year of detention), 21st year of age; 1st line reserve, from 22 to 30 years of age; 2nd line army, aged 30 to 37; 2nd line reserve, from 37th to 44th age. The national territory is divided into 8 “regions” (Rio de Janeiro, San Paolo, San Salvador, Recife, Belém, Juiz de Flora, Porto Alegre, Curityba), and a “military district” (Campo Grande), each including one or several states of the Republic. All federal troops deployed in them depend on the commander of the division or detachment occupying it. For the purposes of the incorporation of the drawn members of the draft and of the volunteers, the various regions are grouped into three “military zones”.
The budget of the Brazilian army amounted, in 1927, to 200,000 gold milreis and 178 million paper milreis, equal to about 120 million gold lire. It absorbs just over 10% of the republic’s entire budget.
Marina. – Navy. – The Brazilian navy has been formed as a navy in itself since the independence of Brazil as a kingdom first (1815), then as an empire (1822). While at its inception a large number of foreigners militated in it, it is now a navy made up exclusively of national elements. A British naval mission took care of his organization at times. The fleet currently consists of: 2 battleships (São Paulo and Minas Geraes) of 19,210 tons. and 21 knots; 1 light cruiser (Barroso) of 3450 tons. and 20 knots; 2 light cruisers (Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul) of 3100 tons and 27 knots; 1 coastguard; 10 destroyers; 6 torpedo boats; 4 submarines. The Brazilian navy has about 1200 officers, 1750 non-commissioned officers and 7200 sub-chiefs and municipalities. The main naval base is in Rio de Janeiro; the Naval Academy is in Angra dos Reis. The 1928 budget was 145 million milreis paper. For Brazil 2004, please check topb2bwebsites.com.
Merchant marine. – Small coastal navigation and river navigation are reserved for the Brazilian flag. The number of Brazilian merchant ships is approximately 540, of which 243 for 275,809 tons destined for river navigation.
A viazione. – Military aviation: a) Army. – Since 1927 the Brazilian Air Force has been established as the fifth weapon of the army; it includes: 1. the direction of military aviation; 2. the military aviation field school; 3. the central aviation warehouse, 4. the aviation units and corresponding related services. An Air Division General is in charge of the Air Force. According to the organization of the army, each infantry, cavalry and mixed brigade is assigned a reconnaissance squadron; in addition there would be three independent mixed hunting and bombing squadrons; in total 12 squadrons. These departments due to budget deficiencies are not all organically constituted. The establishment of anti-aircraft artillery units is envisaged. Cli appliances, about 180 in total,
b) Navy. – Aviation for the navy, organized by an American mission, is directly under the Ministry of the Navy. A general manager is in charge of the entire service. The two bases for the employment departments, not yet completed, would be one in S. Catharina and the other in Santos. The material strength is about 100 appliances of different types: American, French, British and Italian.
Civil aviation. – In Brazil there are no regularly established airlines, despite some attempts by some companies, French, German, English and a Brazilian local.
Air bases. – The main air bases in Brazil are: Affonsos, the main military airport and aviation school, near Rio de Janeiro; Campinas, civil airport and civil aviation school, in the city of the same name; Guapyra, civil and military airport, about 30 km. from the center of San Paolo; Indianopolis, civil airport, about 20 km. from the center of San Paolo; Isola del Governatore, naval air base: the naval air school Campo di Marte (Santos), military airport, about 8 km away, is annexed to the seaplane base. from San Paolo; in this field the ground aviation school is installed; Santos, naval air base. Minor air bases are also at: Alegrete (military), Curityba (civilian), Porto Alegre (seaplane base), Santa Maria (civil and military),
There is no aviation industry in Brazil; all aeronautical material is supplied from abroad.