To the news on the prehistory and history of ancient Moesia (v. XXII, p. 932) and ancient Thrace (v. XXXIV, p. 134), recent excavations and studies have added new masses of elements.
In the last twenty years prehistory has been particularly cultivated, especially by R. Popov who discovered the Paleolithic in the caves of northern Bulgaria (elements of deluvial fauna and Quaternary human culture); a rich documentation of the Paleolithic has been revealed by the excavations of the American School of Prehistoric Research in the cave of Bač Kiro. For the Neolithic and Aeneolithic the systematic excavations of R. Popov and V. Mikov are still insufficient to give us an overall picture, although caves and numerous “ploski mogili”, ie flat mounds that served as isolated settlements have been explored. The stratigraphy throughout the prehistoric period in this region was very complex, which was always a bridge between Europe and Asia. and where strong Aegean and Anatolian currents acted on a certain Balkan-Danubian homogeneity; Bulgarian scholars are now studying the latter, especially for the still little known Bronze Age: the recent finding of the “Trojan” double-sided cups at Svilupporad, the excavations in progress at Michalič (Costrengrad) and Iunacite (Pazardžik) and elsewhere, the Bittel’s 1941 surveys of the Germanic Archaeological Institute of Istanbul in the tumuli of Sv. Kirilovo near Stara Zagora. Thus begins to shed light on the first period of the Thracian civilization, although a large archaeological documentation of the Thracians is only available for the advanced iron civilization starting from the century. VI in burial mounds showing strong Hellenic, Scythian and, to a lesser degree, Halstatt and Celtic influences. The rich tombs of the Thracian dynasts excavated by Bulgaria Filov in Duvanlij (Plovdiv) show Ionic and attic sets of great luxury, metal and clay of the century. VI-V a. C. with Scythian elements, the tombs a tholos of Mezek (Costrengrad) of the century. IV a. C. show grandiose Mycenaean structures.
But the sensational discovery of the last few years is the tholos and dromos tombs painted in the cairn in Kazanlăk. The paintings, perfectly preserved, dating back to the century. III a. C., represent, on high white-red-black clogs in imitation of the marble covering, scenes of knights with Thracian weapons and costumes in the dromos, and a rich typically Hellenic procession of offerers and horses converging towards the couple of deceased banquets in the tholos. Extremely rare and splendid example of Hellenistic painting that finds little comparison only in the tombs of Kerč and in the steles of Pagase. For Bulgaria democracy and rights, please check intershippingrates.com.
While numerous Hellenic material from Thrace has been published, the rich Hellenic cities of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast have not been excavated; only now has the National Museum resumed the research begun by the French in 1904 in Sozopol (ancient Apollonia, a Milesian colony since the 7th century), bringing to light about a hundred tombs with many ceramics. Notable historical studies on the Thracian-Hellenic and Roman civilization (G. Kazarov and Bulgaria Filov) and on Roman art (D. Dimitrov). Some excavation of Roman constructions has been done in Plovdiv, Varna and Sofia; in Nicopolis ad Istrum the National Museum has resumed the Franco-Bulgarian excavations of 1907-08 that brought to light the Forum. The only major excavation of these years, however, is that of the Italian Archaeological Mission at Oescus (Gigen), field of the V Leg. Macedonica and then Colony Ulpia, where a large mid-century building was brought to light outside the walls. III with a curious network of tunnels; polls in the city revealed the decumanus. But the most notable discovery is the frescoed tomb of Silistra (4th century AD) where a procession of servants is represented carrying clothes and objects to the couple of the dead, all framed within light frames as in the codex pages, under the perspective motif of the beams; on the barrel vault, within 63 panels, various decorative motifs alluding to the afterlife. The costumes (barbarian breeches, sleeved tunics, etc.) are very interesting and the Roman-barbarian style is surprising for the large frontal figures and for the strong coloristic accent. A Bulgarian-German excavation in Sadovec revealed a Germanic village of foederati of the century YOU. With particular fervor the Bulgarians and the Hungarian archaeologist Géza Feher continue the study and excavation of proto-Bulgarian antiquities whose oriental character appears increasingly evident in the face of the Byzantine current. After the general works of Bulgaria Filov, excavations were resumed in the great palaces of Pliska (begun in 1905) and extended to Madara and Preslav by K. Miatev and N. Mavrodinov; the Byzantine excavations and studies are also flourishing.