Cambodia – geography
Cambodia is located in the tropical belt; 3/4 of the area is lowland around the Mekong River and the Great Lake Tonle Sap. Between the lowlands and the rather isolated coastal plain to the southwest are the Cardamom Mountains (Kravanh) and the Elephant Mountains (Damrei). The lowlands with the great Mekong Delta to the south form a natural regional connection with southern Vietnam.
Population data are very uncertain. In 1962 there were approximately 6.2 million residents; the first assessment of the population after the Pol Pot regime is from 1981, when it was estimated at 6.7 million. Presumably lost 1-2 million. people life in the chaotic years. In 1993, the population of certain sources was estimated at 9.7 million, and at the 1998 census was calculated at approximately 11.5 million Nearly 54% are women, reflecting civil war and genocide.
- Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Cambodia? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.
An estimated 90% belong to the Khmer people, while the rest are mainly Chinese and Vietnamese minorities. In the border areas with Vietnam and Thailand live various minority tribes.
Business and natural resources
Cambodia is first and foremost an agricultural country. The radical policy under Pol Pot sought to make the country self-sufficient by forcibly relocating the urban population and expanding irrigation systems. There is uncertainty about what really happened during the period, with agricultural development. In 1966, approximately 2.5 million t rice, but in 1980 only approximately 1.5 million Only in the 1990’s did production reach pre-war levels, and in 2000 production was up to approximately 3.8 million t.
Agriculture still employs 80-85% of the workforce. When the rainy season begins in May, large areas around the Mekong are flooded, and through the Tonle Sab River, water is forced up to Lake Tonle Sap, whose area is multiplied. For these peculiar growing conditions, rice varieties with very long stems, floating rice, are harvested from boats. When the water level drops towards the end of the year, river sludge has fertilized the sandy soil and prepared it for growing sales crops such as cotton, mulberry bushes (for silkworms), tobacco, peanuts, sugar cane and fruit growing. Rice, however, is by far the most important crop. The cultivation methods are traditional, and the hectare yields are among the lowest in the world.
Only 1/6 of the land is cultivated, and large areas are potentially farmland. Only 10% is artificial water, and precipitation dependence is a major reason for the low yields.
The entire agricultural sector was hit hard by the Civil War, and the widespread use of landmines is hampering rural reconstruction. The mines are still scattered over large areas and require many casualties annually.
Sea fishing is not widespread, but Tonle Sap and Mekong have large fish stocks, which are exploited by the Vietnamese minority in particular. Under Pol Pot’s xenophobic regime, this fishery declined sharply.
About half of the country is forested, and especially in the 1990’s, the utilization of tree reserves has increased sharply. Deforestation takes place at a pace that is not matched by tree planting. It is teak for export, and the increase is favored by a more restrictive environmental policy in neighboring countries.
Industrial development has been very limited. In Phnom Penh and some provincial towns, there is processing of agricultural products, textile and tobacco industry as well as rice mills. In addition, there is an assembly plant for tractors and one for refrigerators, as well as a few other companies that manufacture consumer goods.
Cambodia’s official exports are very small and dominated by wood and a few other raw materials. Imports are financed for a large part by international aid. Smuggling is significant, especially across the border into Thailand.
The great UN effort 1991-93, which cost 3 billion. dollars, led 22,000 soldiers and civilians to the country and helped establish a market economy. Business people from especially neighboring Thailand and Singapore invested in this situation profitably in hotels, restaurants and tourist services. Brothels, crime and inflation were other results of the UN effort. Throughout the 1990’s, Thailand’s significant investment in Cambodia continued. Among other things. Many smaller and larger companies have been built up in industries such as clothing, carpets and leather goods. They take advantage of the very cheap labor and liberal investment rules. Development aid constitutes a large part of the balance of payments, but tourist revenues have become increasingly important.
One of the world’s great historical monuments, the Angkor Vat ruins, is located just north of Tonle Sap, 200 km from Phnom Penh. In 1994, a UNESCO-funded rescue program was launched and it is estimated that more than 500,000 tourists visit the site annually.
Cambodia – language
Cambodian or Khmer, spoken by an estimated 8 million people. people, is the national language of Cambodia and belongs to the Mon-Khmer class in the Austro-Asian languages. The writing, which is alphabetical, is of Indian origin and is known from inscriptions dating back to the 700’s. The spoken language is characterized by dividing syllables into two phonetic types, tone and register classes, depending on the nature of the initial consonant. The vowel a thus becomes after an originally voiced consonant to ie. Each phonation has its own vocal system. Nouns are not inflected according to their function in the sentence, but the object is usually placed just after the verb and adled after the kernel. In addition, some minority languages are spoken; the austronesian language cham is most important. For culture and traditions of Cambodia, please check animalerts.