Cape Verde Geography

Cape Verde Geography and Population

Cape Verde – Geography

Cape Verde – Geography, Cape Verde is located 500 km west of the coast of West Africa. Despite the name, according to the first European visitors (including Columbus), the islands have always been dry, and the name refers to the location off the Cape Verde fort in Senegal. The country consists of 9 inhabited and 12 uninhabited islands as well as 58,000 km 2 of sea ​​territory. The islands are divided into the northern islands, Ilhas do Barlavento (‘the islands on the windward side’), and the southern islands, Ilhas do Sotavento (‘the islands on shelter’). The names refer to the location in relation to the northeast passage, which characterizes the climate with a constant warm and dry wind.

All the islands are of volcanic origin and volcanic eruptions occur regularly. While the western and geologically youngest are mountainous and in many places only difficult to reach, the eastern are degraded and sandy. The precipitation falls almost exclusively from August to October and usually in few heavy rains. On average, the rainfall is modest, and for many years it has completely failed with recurring famine. The last one was in 1947 when 20,000 people died. Since then, the country has received large amounts of international food aid, including during the prolonged drought from 1969 to 1985. Even in good years, the country cannot feed itself.

Population. Cape Verde is one of the countries in the world that has the largest proportion of the population as migrant workers abroad. It is estimated that over half of the Cape Towns live abroad; the reason is high unemployment (21% in 2000) and underemployment in the home country; on the other, large emigration to the US and Western Europe in particular. The tradition of migrant work has deep roots.

  • Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Cape Verde? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.

Unlike the Canary Islands, Cape Verde was uninhabited when the first Portuguese arrived in 1456. They imported slaves from the west coast of Africa (especially from the then Portuguese Guinea, now Guinea-Bissau) to work on the newly constructed plantations. Cape Verde’s position as a transit port first for the slave trade and later for shipping in the East meant that there were good opportunities to work on the ships. Since then, migration has continued because of the modest opportunities in the islands and there is a surplus of women.

71% of the population are descendants of mixed marriages between slaves and Portuguese. The population density is almost 100 inbsp. km2, which is a lot compared to the limited natural resources. A large part lives on the island of São Tiago with the capital Praia.

Agriculture is limited by both water scarcity and a modest arable area, a total of 39,000 ha, of which 8600 ha are irrigated. Groundwater resources are limited, as rainfall from heavy rains does not reach the mountainous landscape. To curb the surface drainage, the government has since relied on terracing, dam construction and a comprehensive afforestation program. From 1975 to the mid-1990’s, the forest area has increased from 3,000 to 50,000 hectares and a further 2-3 million are planted. trees every year.

The only agricultural export is bananas, with Cape Verde having a quota of 4800 tonnes under the EU banana scheme, which can, however, be far from being met.

Fishing. The territorial sea holds only small fishbanks and local fishing is limited; Among other things, exported lobsters. There is great potential for tuna and other high sea fishing, which, however, requires large investments. So far, fishing rights are sold to the EU.

The industry is modest and is made up of small businesses that produce for the local market. Since 1993, free zones have been established for foreign investors; eight foreign companies had established themselves in 1999. Since 1992, there has been a liberalization policy with support from the IMF and the World Bank.

Energy. Cape Verde has to import all oil. An attempt to reduce this dependency is being made with the building, with Danish assistance, from wind turbines, which utilize the stable trade wind.

Economy. Most years, export revenue covers less than 5% of the cost of goods imports. The deficit is covered by services (port money, sale of fishing licenses), loans, aid (especially from Portugal) and, not least, transfers from hijackers abroad. By contrast, the revenue from tourist visits is negligible. The conditions in the nearby Canary Islands have otherwise inspired a focus on the tourist industry.

nigerian chordophane language

Niger-Kordofan language, Niger-Congo language, the largest of the African languages. The over 1,000 Nigerian-Kordofan languages ​​are spoken by over 650 million people. in a contiguous area from Senegal in the west to Kenya in the east and South Africa in the south. The language guess was first suggested by American linguist Joseph H. Greenberg in his The Languages ​​of Africa (1963). The historical-comparative methods known from Indo-European linguistic research have only been used to some extent within the individual branches and practically not between them. For culture and traditions of Cape Verde, please check allunitconverters.


The Nigerian-Kordofan language families are very different from one another. A special feature is those between 10 and 25 nominal classes that can be compared to the grammatical genders in Danish and are expressed with etymologically related prefixes or suffixes in all language families except the man languages ​​that do not have nominal classes. For example, there is a special class for words that denote fluids; this class is often marked with a m, cf. Swahili m-aji ‘water’ and m-aziwa ‘milk’ as well as fulani ndiya-m ‘water’ and kosa-m ‘milk’.

In some Nigerian-Kordofan languages, a frequent feature is serialization, ie. that several verbs without conjunction are common to one subject and that tempus and aspect are marked in all verbal forms, eg akan for ‘he/she came with the table’:

Desolate pono no baae
3.pers.-take-past table particular shape get-past

In bantu language, only the first of the verbs of the sentence is marked.


The Nigerian-Kordofan languages ​​are also phonologically very different from one another, but certain features are characteristic, such as vocal harmony and nasal vowels. Most languages ​​are tone languages with 2-3 distinctive tones, but there are also four and fifteen languages. See also Africa (language).

Niger-Kordofan language

The Nigerian-Kordofan language set includes 10 language families and more than 1000 languages; therefore, only the largest languages ​​are mentioned. Where the year is missing, the number of people who speak the languages ​​is based on an estimate.

  • Kordofan languages

The approximately Thirty languages, the largest of which are Tegali and Kadugli, are spoken by a total of almost 200,000 in the Dar Nuba mountain region in central Sudan.

  • Mande

The approximately 25 languages ​​are spoken by approximately 15 million in large parts of West Africa. The largest are bambara (about 3 million) in Mali, Senegal, Ivory Coast and Gambia, diula (about 2.5 million) in Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso and Mali, mende (over 1.3 million in Sierra Leone, 1989, and about 20,000 in Liberia, 1991), soninka (over 1.1 million) especially in Mali and malinka, also called mandingo or mandinka (more than 1 million, 1991), especially in Mali and Senegal.

  • West Atlantic languages

The almost 50 languages ​​are spoken by over 30 million people. in West Africa and includes fulani, wolof, balanta and mandyak; see West Atlantic languages.

  • Dogon

The language is spoken by approximately 600,000 (1995) in Mali and Burkina Faso; formerly considered gur language, but now an independent language family.

  • Ijoid languages

The seven languages, the largest of which are ijo and defaka, are spoken by approximately 1.8 million (1991) in southern Nigeria and was previously considered as Kwa language.

  • kru

The approximately 25 languages ​​are spoken by approximately 2 million in Southern Liberia and Ivory Coast; Among other things, bete and dida east and bassa, grebo, Klao, Guere and krahn west.

  • Gur

The approximately 85 languages ​​are spoken by 10-15 million. in West Africa. The largest are moore or moré (c. 4.5 million, 1995) in Burkina Faso and senufo (c. 2.4 million, 1993) in Ivory Coast, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana.

  • Adamawa-Ubangi

Most of the approximately 100 languages ​​in Central Africa are spoken by quite a few. Among the largest are ngbandi (c. 210,000, 1989) in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the related Creole language sango (c. 350,000; lingua franca for c. 5 million, 1995) in the Central African Republic, zande (c. 1.1 million) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan and the Central African Republic, banda (c. 685,000, 1996) and gbaya (c. 65,000, 1996), both in the Central African Republic.

  • Kwa

The approximately 40 languages ​​are spoken by an estimated approximately 15 million in West Africa and partly includes the nyo- language group with akan or twi (about 7 million, 1995) in Ghana, baule (over 2.1 million, 1993) in the Ivory Coast and ga or ga-adangme-krobo (about 1, 3 million) in Ghana, partly the left-wing languages ​​with ewe (about 2.5 million, 1991) in Ghana and Togo, as well as fon or fonge (over 1.3 million, 1991) in Benin and Togo.

  • Benue-Kongo

The 10 language groups with more than 700 languages ​​from Togo in NV to South Africa in the south comprise over half of all Nigerian-Kurdish-speaking speakers. Among the largest groups are defoid languages with eg. yoruba (c. 20 million, 1993) especially in Nigeria, but also in Benin and Togo, igboid languages, including igbo or ibo (c. 17 million, 1995) in southern Nigeria, as well as cross river languages including efik (about 5 million) in southern Nigeria and SV-Cameroon and ibibio (about 3.2 million, 1991) in southern Nigeria.The largest group is the more than 500 bantoid languages spoken by over 60 million. The group consists of: of some minor languages ​​such as tiv(about 2.2 million) in Nigeria, but the majority of languages ​​are Bantu languages :

  • Swahilior Kiswahili are native speakers of approximately 5 million and used as a lingua franca of just under 40 million. in most of Central Africa;
  • nguniis the common term for the languages Zulu (about 9.1 million), xhosa (about 6.9 million), ndebele (about 2 million) and Swazi (about 1.7 million) spoken in the southern part of Africa;
  • Kinyarwanda Urundiis the common term for the languages Rwanda (about 9.3 million) and Rundi (about 6 million, 1995), spoken in particular, respectively. Rwanda and Burundi.

In addition, shona (about 8 million, 1995) in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique and Malawi, luba or chiluba (about 7.8 million, 1991) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, kikuyu or wentuyu (about 5.3 million, 1994) in Kenya, Nyanja or Chewa (c. 5 million, 1993), i. Malawi and Zambia, sukuma (approximately 5 million, 1993) in Tanzania, sotho or sesotho (approximately 4.2 million, 1995) in South Africa and Lesotho, makhuwa (over 4 million, 1996) in Mozambique, tswana or setswana (just under 4 million) especially in South Africa and Botswana, umbundu andkimbundu (about 4 and 3 million, 1995) in Angola, Congo or kikongo (about 3.2 million, 1991 in Congo (Brazzaville), Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo, tsonga (about 3.2 million) in South Africa, Mozambique and Swaziland, ganda or luganda (over 3 million, 1991) especially in Uganda, kamba (about 2.4 million, 1989) in Kenya, bemba (over 2 million) especially in Zambia, lingala (about 2 million) especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo and chokwe (about 1 million, 1991) in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Cape Verde Geography