Turkey Literature

Turkey Literature

According to collegesanduniversitiesinusa, the awarding of the Nobel Prize for Literature to Orhan Pamuk (b.1952) in 2006, the participation of Turkey as a guest country at the Buchmesse in Frankfurt in 2008 and at the Book Fair in London in 2013 and the start, in 2005, of TEDA, a project of the Turkish government aimed […]

Romania Encyclopedia for Children

Romania Encyclopedia for Children

Romania Between Latin heritage and Gypsy culture A composite and fragmented territory and a troubled history have hindered the formation of Romania as a unitary nation and have long isolated it from Western Europe, with which it had had ancient and important relations, as evidenced by the language. Through a difficult, delicate and controversial process […]

Poland Ethnic Composition

Poland Ethnic Composition

While several millions of Poles live outside Poland, it hosts within its borders a very significant number of alloglots, which in the 1931 census were 9,925,000 (31% of the total population). The ethnic constitution of the population of Poland would be as follows: According to microedu, the distribution of the various alien groups can be […]

Austria Crops

Austria Crops

The surface of the productive land of the Austrian Republic is relatively high, taking into account that it is essentially a mountainous state; it represents 89.7% of the total area, against 10.3% uncultivated (census 1900); while in Switzerland the unproductive land occupies 22.4% of the territory. These reach their maximum in the northern limestone Alps […]

Albania Recent History

Albania Recent History

From the creation of the Albanian state to today . In the 20th century, the intersection of Balkan nationalisms and the alternating events of the European powers determined a very fluid situation in Albania In 1913 the conference of ambassadors in London created an Albanian free state, under the principality of the German William of […]

Albania from a Physical Point of View

Albania from a Physical Point of View

From the orographical point of view, the relief of Albania is very complicated, and, while it is connected with that of the whole remaining western part of the Peninsula, it can be poorly coordinated in well-defined systems. For convenience of description, four main groupings can be distinguished: the Northern Albanian Alps, the border chains on […]

Aznar's Spain

Aznar’s Spain

The nineties marked the transition from the leadership of the socialist government to that of the center-right of the PP: a significant political change that did not seem to affect the more generally social and economic terrain. Both from the point of view of infrastructures and from that of the productive apparatus, mentality and behavior, […]

Cinema in Franco's Spain

Cinema in Franco’s Spain

The civil war ended in the spring of 1939. It was the beginning of a long and harsh dictatorship that would subject the Spaniards to the iron power of the Caudillo, Generalissimo F. ​​Franco, for almost forty years. Like Hitler and Mussolini, Franco considered cinema an indispensable but dangerous propaganda tool, which required attention and […]

Elements of Spanish Law

Elements of Spanish Law

Just as Spanish nationality was formed with the fusion of very different ethnic elements, so also Spanish law arose from the fusion of very varied legal elements over the course of a long history. The main elements of Spanish law are two: the Roman and the Germanic (Visigothic). Properly Spanish law begins when these two elements begin to interpenetrate. […]

Spain - The Attacks and the Elections

Spain – The Attacks and the Elections

Then, on the eve of the vote, the ten explosions: the smoke, the screams, the blood, the torn bodies, the scattered and parched limbs, the panic, the dismay, the voices, the accusations, the unaware and guilty silences. The Madrid bombing was announced. Or rather, an attack was announced. That Bush’s closest allies would pay dearly […]

Spain - The Eight Years of the PP

Spain – The Eight Years of the PP

For Spain and the Spaniards, 2004 will remain for a long time the year of the attacks carried out by Al Qaeda in the Madrid railway stations of Atocha, Santa Eugenia and El Pozo, with 190 victims. And then also the year, on the one hand, of the surprising and unexpected defeat of the Popular […]

Spain Geopolitics

Spain Geopolitics

Spain was a thriving colonial empire between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (the so-called Siglo de oro): it had numerous colonies especially in South America, where the Iberian cultural heritage is still alive and the Spanish language, among the most widely spoken. in the world, it is the most used. Apart from Morocco, Spain lost its […]

Poland political system

Poland in the 1990’s

The arduous path of democratization undertaken by Poland in the Eighties had found only partial answers with the end of the socialist regime. The transition from the planned economy to the market had in fact had serious consequences and caused acute hardships in society. Even the recovery of the early 1990s had not been accompanied […]

Poland Agriculture

Poland Agriculture

According to the soil type map built by Slawomir Miklaszewski, the podsol are the prevailing soils in Poland. AN of the 51 ° lat., Roughly the parallel of Lublin, the podsol proper, typical predominates, a dusty soil peculiar to countries with wet, cold and long winters, favorable to forest formations, but little to crops, because because of […]

Poland Architecture

Poland Architecture

Different formations, different regional and political realities, different legislations contribute to forming an extremely heterogeneous mosaic of urban planning and architecture in the Polish territories up to the 1920s. In the first period of independence from 1918, architecture is characterized by two motives: the artistic one which offers an individual interpretation of architecture, poetic, technically […]

Poland Armed Forces

Poland Armed Forces

Army. – The army of the Polish republic arose at the end of the world war, at the time of the dissolution of the central empires, which, in November 1918, occupied the whole of Poland. It incorporated, along with recruits, soldiers already belonging to: the Germanic, Austrian, Russian armies; to the Polish legions and formations, […]

Poland as an European Country

Poland as an European Country

The role of the Catholic Church Religion is a fundamental element of Polish identity. Poland is a predominantly Catholic country and this differentiates it from its German neighbors, largely Protestant, and from the Russian, Orthodox. The Catholic Church, well branched throughout the territory with a dense network of parishes, represents not only a religious, but […]

Poland Medieval Arts - Lesser Poland

Poland Medieval Arts – Lesser Poland

Little Poland (Polish Małopolska), in the basin of the upper and middle Vistula, is bounded to the South by the Carpathians, to the West by Upper Silesia, to the North by Masovia, to the East by the Land of Chełm and Przemyśl; to the SE the border was marked by the high course of the […]

Sweden democracy

Sweden Administrative Divisions and Finance

Administratively Sweden is divided into 24 provinces (Län) which are headed by prefects appointed by the king. The capital is administered by a governor. The following table gives the surface and the population of the various provinces. The constitution of Sweden is not made up of a single document, but of a set of constitutional […]

Sweden Architecture

Sweden Architecture

Constructive characteristics, functional clarity and the relationship between building and environment from a perspective of a project oriented towards the criteria of sustainability, as demonstrated by the urban reconversion and building policies in which great consideration is given to the construction and management processes focused on the development of new environmentally friendly technologies. Paradigmatic examples […]

Sweden Armed Forces

Sweden Armed Forces

Army. – Mixed army of standing forces and militias. Budget of the armed forces (war, navy, air force) 111 million crowns. Supreme head of the army is the king; central, administrative and command body, the Ministry of Defense, which supervises all the armed forces and is assisted by a General Staff. The territory is divided into: 4 […]

Sweden Arts 2

Sweden Arts

In the seventies a salient feature of Swedish art was a deliberate isolation that reflected a radical political attitude, in particular hostility towards the United States. The artistic panorama of the eighties, on the other hand, opened up to international experiences, assuming a more varied character, also because many artists, born in the fifties and […]

Sweden Folklore

Sweden Ethnography and Folklore

The population of the wooded and mountain districts of the center and north has, until recently, conquered the soil for agriculture with primitive means, burning the forest and working the land with the hoe. We should therefore not be surprised to find still in use archaic nail plows, harrows made with branches of bushes and […]

Hungary Agriculture

Hungary Agriculture and Breeding

An important agrarian state even before the World War, agriculture is the basis of the Hungarian economy, as the crops, in addition to covering by far the internal needs and feeding some industries, allow a considerable export. Indeed, the agricultural area has greatly increased in relation to the total area due to the loss of […]

Hungary Archaeology

Hungary Archaeology

In the last decade a series of researches has broadened the framework of knowledge on Hungarian archeology (see pannonia, XXVI, p. 202; aquinco, III, p. 809; brigezione, VII, p. 853). Prehistory. – In Zengővárkony, north of Pécs, an inhabited area and a cemetery (altogether about 70 ha.) From the end of the Neolithic age came […]

Hungary Architecture 2

Hungary Architecture

Crossroads of different cultures due to the special geographical position, the Hungary he was able to elaborate every contribution in an original way. Thus was born an autonomous and relevant architectural production, whose essential component is still based on an advanced experimentalism. Despite the break of the Second World War and the parenthesis of socialist […]

Hungary Architecture

Hungary Architecture and Cinema

Architecture. – The Hungary it has developed an architectural language of great interest in which the functionalism inherited from the post-war period has progressively changed towards a neomodernism of international taste or towards different forms of regionalism. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Hungary, Historically part of the Eastern Bloc, has further westernized, […]

Hungary culture and traditions

Hungary Arts

The Hungarians found in the Danube basin an already remarkable artistic culture brought there by the Huns, the Avars, the Scythians, the Lombards. The Hungarians themselves brought with them an industrial art of a Persian-Sassanid mold, of which they were found adorned with metal and goldsmiths in the tombs. But the greatest artistic legacy came […]

Hungary Government

Hungary Government and Finance

Political order. – The Hungarian constitution is founded on the constitutional law of 1222 (golden bull), and on the additional laws of February 28, 1920, August 14, 1925, November 14, 1926, June 18, 1933. Hungary is a monarchy (Királyság) with a throne vacant and in which the monarchical functions are exercised by a regent (Kormányzó). […]