|STATE STRUCTURE||Parliamentary republic|
|INTERNAL DIVISION||Unitary state with autonomous entities|
|CLIMATE||Moderate continental in the west and north, subtropical in the central regions of the country and tropical monsoonal in the south coast and on the islands|
|POPULATION||1 billion 399 million|
|NATIONAL COMPOSITION||The largest nationality is the Han, more than 90% of the population. The rest are small ethnic groups: Zhuang, Hui, Uighurs, Manchus, Tibetans, Mongols and others.|
|RELIGION||Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism|
|TIMEZONE||UTC + 8 / Moscow +5|
The national flag of the People’s Republic of China is a red flag with five stars. Its length to width ratio is 3:2. The red color of the flag symbolizes the revolution. It depicts five five-pointed stars of bright yellow—one large and four small. Small stars surround the big one, which symbolizes the great unity of the revolutionary Chinese people under the leadership of the CCP.
The National Emblem of the People’s Republic of China depicts the national flag, Tiananmen Square, wheat ears and a cogwheel. This symbolizes the struggle for victory in the new democratic revolution that the Chinese people have led since the May 4th Movement in 1919 and the establishment of New China, a state led by the working class based on the workers’ and peasants’ democratic dictatorship of the people.
According to Franciscogardening.com, China is located in the eastern part of Asia and is washed by the semi-enclosed seas of the Pacific Ocean. The possessions of the state include the mainland and thousands of islands, of which only 433 are inhabited.
The country’s relief is very diverse. Most of the territory is occupied by mountains, the highest of which are located in the west of the country, in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Next come the plateau, the massifs of the Greater Khingan, Taihanshan and others. The farther east, the lower the mountains. And along the southern coasts, the landscape is predominantly flat.
The weather is determined by the terrain and the influence of the ocean. The southern part of China is dominated by a tropical climate with high humidity and frequent typhoons. The central regions are characterized by cool winters and very hot summers, when the temperature can rise to 40 degrees Celsius. The northwest, mainly the Ordos plateau, is a continental climate zone. The temperature difference between day and night reaches 20 degrees, and in the mountains frosts can reach minus 50 degrees.
Interesting fact: In China, there is the highest mountain in the world – Everest (8848 m above sea level). The locals call her called Chomolungma, which means “Mother Goddess of the Earth.”
Due to the richness of reliefs and climatic zones, the state is distinguished by perhaps the largest variety of wildlife on the planet. There are more than 6000 living organisms and more than 50 thousand plant species. Such a variety of plants, as in China, is not found anywhere else.
In the north, there are many types of forests – from coniferous to tropical, and in the east, near the Chinese plain, there are forb-cereal steppes. The most famous endemics include Taiwanese flusiana, false larch, Chinese argyrophylla and many others. Of the medicinal herbs, ginseng and Tibetan safflower are especially well known. The flower symbol of the state is the peony, and the animal is the panda. The fauna of the state is rich in rare animals. Only here you can meet the Chinese tiger and panda, the Manchurian crane and the white dolphin.
The first mention of China and its philosophy are found in the Yijing, a book of changes written over 3,000 years ago. The history of the country is usually divided into three periods: Pre-imperial, Imperial and New China. In pre-imperial times, the tribes that lived on these lands were engaged in cattle breeding and worshiped totem animals. In the first centuries of our era, the Qin dynasty came to power, which founded the great Chinese empire. The state reached its peak in the 7th century, after the reign of the Tang Dynasty. The imperial type of government lasted until the beginning of the 20th century. In 1912, China was proclaimed a constitutional republic, and in 1949, one of the founders of the Communist Party, Mao Zedong, announced the creation of the People’s Republic of China.
Fun Fact: Chinese is the oldest language spoken in the world.
In China, traditions and culture are deeply revered. Residents are distinguished by a special view of numbers: it is believed that odd numbers bring bad luck. Therefore, when they come to visit, they give only an even number of gifts. No less reverent in this country are the colors of clothing. In some provinces, green is prohibited, which brings grief, and yellow, on the contrary, is held in high esteem, as it symbolizes happiness. It is customary to greet each other with a low bow – as a sign of respect. Perhaps the most famous Chinese tradition is the tea ceremony. For local residents, this is a way to achieve inner harmony.
The culture and art of China are so multifaceted that scientists are still discovering something new by studying ancient manuscripts. Chinese painting originated before our era. Each work was a story on silk canvases, which were often made by the artists themselves. During the Han Dynasty, bronze casting became widespread and theater began to develop. Theatrical performances were accompanied by the performance of musical works on the plucked string instrument guqing and bamboo flute and demonstration of martial movements with all kinds of acrobatic stunts. Chinese literature is unthinkable without the spiritual works and memoirs of the rulers. One of the most popular books that have come down to our times is The Art of War by the sage Sun Tzu.
Particular attention in the country is paid to education, the system of which is similar to the European one and has three stages – a kindergarten, a school and an institute. Pre-school education is available in public and private institutions, where, in addition to basic knowledge, children are taught art and help develop creative abilities. Before entering school, they perform many tests, on the basis of which children are divided into groups. After the seventh grade, students take serious exams for admission to higher education. Those who do not cope well with them cannot continue their studies at the university. Higher education in the country is paid, but the prices are relatively low. You can enter universities on the basis of the unified state exam. The most prestigious institutions of higher education in China are Peking University, Fudan University and Tsinghua University.
Sport in China is a mass phenomenon. There is a sports ground in every yard, free dancing and martial arts lessons are given on the streets, and every second resident has a gym membership. On the basis of all educational institutions there are sports sections. Chinese athletes are among the most successful in the world in many Olympic disciplines, and in terms of life expectancy and health, the citizens of the country are among the world leaders. National sports include the well-known wushu and qigong, as well as yak racing and dragon-shaped boating.
Interesting fact: In some rural areas of China, the police use geese instead of dogs, as these birds are distinguished by exceptional vision and courage.
Chinese civilization has made a huge contribution to the development of world culture. Among the most outstanding personalities of all time, Confucius is an ancient scientist and philosopher, the founder of Confucianism. This teaching had a profound impact on China and East Asia, and in the modern world, educational methods are being developed on its basis.
China is the birthplace of many things, without which modern man cannot imagine himself. It was here that the compass, paper and seismograph appeared. Chinese chefs invented noodles, and scientists invented alcohol. Local researchers still amaze the world today. Their last major discovery was an engine that works against the laws of physics.
China is one of the most interesting countries for tourists. The country has everything that a traveler might be curious about: ancient monuments, ecotourism, medical resorts, beaches and shopping. Many people come to China to walk along the Great Wall of China, visit the Forbidden City and take a walk in national parks.
The country offers a huge amount of entertainment for every taste and budget. For a touch of art and innovation, you need to visit the new state-of-the-art Guangzhou Opera House. Dozens of zoos and water parks are open for families with children. Those who are interested in history will certainly want to see the burial of the terracotta army, which was intended for the emperor who ruled China 2200 years ago.
The best resorts in the country are located in the province of Hainan. The tropical climate and the lack of industries make the island attractive for holidaymakers from November to April. In the resort of Dalian, in addition to beautiful beaches, you can visit the marine aquarium, where about 10,000 fish are collected, the zoo and the local Disneyland. Fans of active winter recreation will love the resort of Yabuli, where national ski teams train and there is the longest toboggan run in the world. The season here is open from mid-November to the very end of March.
The main medical resorts are located in the south of Hainan in the city of Sanya. Here is one of the most famous sanatoriums – “Taiji”, where patients are helped to cope with chronic fatigue, alcohol addiction and even serious diseases of the joints and heart. This sanatorium practices traditional Chinese medicine and prepares healing decoctions based on mineral waters. On the slopes of the Tien Shan, for many centuries in a row, they have been treated with the help of Ugur medicine, which is based on the principle of “any disease from nervous experiences.”
It would be a big omission to come to China and not go shopping. In addition to the millions of goods that the country produces for export and which are inexpensive, it is worth paying attention to the work of local craftsmen, created not for mass sale. These are products made of porcelain and jade stone. The visiting card of China, silk, deserves special attention.
Interesting fact: In the “Kingdom of the Little People” in Kunming, there are more than 100 dwarfs no taller than 130 cm, who entertain visitors with songs and dances.
Chinese cuisine is diverse and differs depending on the region. Shanghai, Cantonese and Sichuan traditions have their own characteristics. If in the south the main food is rice, then in the northern regions they prefer flour products. One of the most popular dishes in China and a symbol of the cuisine of this country is Peking duck.
In China, you can also try exotic dishes: shark fins, jellyfish salad, and even fried bear palms. The main feature of Chinese cooking is the abundant use of sauces, which give the food a spicy aroma and refined taste.
Traditional holidays in China are associated with agricultural activities and nature. The most important and brightest is the New Year. It is celebrated according to the lunar calendar. Houses are decorated with pictures, red lanterns and symbols of the coming year. Noisy and colorful events are held everywhere – it is believed that this drives away evil spirits that should not fall into the coming year. Bright festivals celebrate the day of the winter solstice, the day of commemoration of the dead and the day of mid-autumn. One of the most beautiful Chinese holidays is the Lantern Festival, when the streets are lit up with thousands of lights and there is not a single area in the city that is not decorated with lanterns, and fireworks and firecrackers are launched into the sky.