Cyprus has been colonized by various cultures throughout its history. The Mycenaean civilization would have arrived around 1600 BC, and later Phoenician and Greek colonies were established. Pharaoh Thutmose III of Egypt subdued the island in 1500 BC and forced it to pay tribute, which was maintained until Egyptian rule was replaced by that of the Hittites (who called Cyprus Alasiya in their language) in the 20th century. XIII BC After the invasion of the peoples of the sea (approx. 1200 BC), the Achaeans-Greeks settled on the island (c. 1100 BC), acting decisively in shaping its cultural identity. The Hebrews called it Kittim Island. Nicosia is the capital city of Cyprus according to itypejob.
The Assyrians invaded the island in 800 BC. C., until the pharaoh Amasis reconquered the island in 600 BC, to later be replaced by the Persians after their conquest of Egypt. Salamis, the most powerful of the various city-kingdoms of Cyprus at that time, rebelled against Persian rule in 499 BC, under King Onisilos. Both this rebellion, and the consequent Greek attempts to liberate Cyprus, failed; among them those of King Evágoras of Salamina, in the year 345 BC However, in the year 331 BC, Alexander the Great he conquered Cyprus, removing it from the Persians to reincorporate it in the Hellenic world. The Cypriot fleet helped him conquer Phenicia. After the death of Alexander the Great, Cyprus was the subject of rivalries between the generals that succeeded it due to its wealth and strategic situation, finally falling under the rule of the Ptolemies of Egypt. The Roman Empire finally took over the island in 57 BC
In 1960, Turkey, Greece and the United Kingdom – together with the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities – signed a treaty declaring the island’s independence and British possession of the Akrotiri and Dhekelia bases. Makarios assumes the Presidency. The constitution indicates that the Turkish Cypriots will be in charge of the vice presidency, and will have veto power. That peculiar Constitution that was imposed on it made it difficult for the State to function, and relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots became tense, leading to the inter-community violence explosions of 1963 and 1967.
The 15 of July of 1974, a coup “pro-Greek”, supported by the “dictatorship Greek colonels”, overthrew the legitimate government, prompting the reaction of Turkey, who invaded and militarily occupied the northern third of the island, both parties in breach of international law. This is the origin of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a de facto state that is only recognized by Turkey and the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
The Republic of Cyprus becomes a member of the European Union in 2004, the year in which a United Nations-supported reunification plan is implemented. However, the referendum is rejected by 76% of Greek Cypriots.
Places of interest in Nicosia
The city has many sites of great interest among which the Gothic- style Nicosia Cathedral stands out. Famagusta Gate: it is one of the gates of the Venetian wall that surrounds the historical part of the city, which together with its rooms is today an important cultural center.
Laiki Yitonia: it is a pedestrian area that comprises a large part of the old quarter and that has become an example of the urban architecture of the city and the whole of Cyprus.
Faneromeni Church: It is the largest in Nicosia in size. The portal of the church is made up of three full archivolts, with fine collars and intercolumniations chiseled with plant motifs. Above the closing of the arches, a sinuous and projecting molding shelters the essential cross raised by two children and flanked by archaic pilasters.
Church of Tripiotis: it is a church a clear example of the Franco-Byzantine style, highlighting its rich interior. It has a sixteen-sided rotunda that surrounds a radiating octagonal nucleus of two bodies, in which slightly pointed arches open, supported by columns with Romanesque-Byzantine capitals.
Monastery of San Irakleidios: it is a monastery that was formerly a cave where he lived. Irakleidios Archbishop of Tamassos after his death began the construction of this old building.
Cathedral of San Ioannis: it is a church of references for the Orthodox Christianity of the city, and seat of the archbishopric.
Arab Ahmet Mosque: it is a mosque that shows the faithful reflection of the wide Turkish presence on the island, this building offers the possibility of coming into contact with the Arab culture and the Ottoman heritage.
Omeriyeh Mosque or Old Cathedral of Saint Sophia: this mosque is loaded with historical connotations, has a past and an origin rooted in the ruins of a church.
Cyprus History Museum: This is a museum offering Cypriot antiquities ranging from the Neolithic to the Byzantine period. It is undoubtedly the most important museum on the island, housing numerous samples of ceramics, sculptures and jewels, which shows the importance of art in the successive cultural periods through which the city and the island passed through.
Byzantine Museum and Galleries: it is a museum that collects the most valuable samples of the different stages through which this territory passed, the Byzantine Museum specializes in the part of history in which the entire island was invaded by the powerful Empire Byzantine, which left traces of its presence in a multitude of social, cultural and economic aspects.
Museum of Popular Art: it is a museum that collects a wide variety of folk art, such as woodcuts, tapestry, embroidery, pottery, national costumes and handmade textiles.
Town Hall Building: it is the seat of the town hall and is currently the most modern building in the entire capital.
Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios House: It is an important building, originally Venetian, where today the Ethnographic Museum of Cyprus is located.