Government and politics
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy, whose Constitution as well as the Charter of Fundamental Freedoms and Rights (an integral part of the Magna Carta of the Czech Republic) were ratified on December 16, 1992, and entered into force on January 1, 1993. Civil law is based on the Austro-Hungarian (former monarchy) legal system while the legal system is currently in the final stage of harmonization with European Union law following the 2009 entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. Prague is the capital city of Czech Republic according to itypejob.
Separation of powers
The head of state is elected in indirect elections by the two houses of Parliament in joint session, the presidential term is 5 years. On the other hand, the Government is formed every four years based on the results obtained in the parliamentary elections, forming with the members of the winning party in the elections or by coalition between the main winning parties. At the head of the government cabinet is the Prime Minister (President of the Government), proposed by the winning political forces in the elections and ratified by the President of the Republic.
Legislative power rests with the Parliament of the Czech Republic, a bicameral body, elected every four years, based on a proportional system of election. It is divided into two chambers, the lower house, which is the Chamber of Deputies, which has 200 seats, and the Senate, which has 81 senators, elected for a period of 6 years (majority system). One third of the Senate is renewed in elections every two years.
Its membership of the European Union is the central axis of the foreign policy of the Czech Republic. The born took over the Presidency of the European Union during the first half of 2009. The Czech government had diplomatic confrontations with Burma, Belarus, Moldova and Cuba.
The economy of the Czech Republic is one of the most developed and most stable among the nations of Central and Eastern Europe. The Czech Republic launched economic reforms vigorously in 1991, such as price liberalization, freedom of import and export, privatization of companies in different sectors, and economic stabilization. After a slump as a consequence of the trade deficit at the end of the 90s of the 20th century, its growth increased significantly in the 2001-2002 biennium. That allowed him to enter the European Union in good condition. Most exports now go to the EU, reaching 71% of the total in 2004. The agricultural sector has progressively decreased the workforce employed, standing in 2004 at 3% of the total and contributing less than 12% of GDP. The most important crops are cereals such as wheat and barley, followed far behind by beets, potatoes and flax.
The privatization of the state sector and transformation into the liberal capitalist system has resulted in the liquidation of most of the manufacturing companies. Privatization took place in the 90s of the 20th century led by Václav Klaus and Václav Havel. The world-famous products of the brand, which existed before privatization: ČKD, Poldi Kladno, Chirana, Tesla, OP Prostejov, Orion – the product is labeled “Made in Czechoslovakia”. Basic living conditions for worse citizens – French company Veolia 77x more expensive drinking water
The economy of the Czech Republic maintains a highly diversified industrial structure. The industry employs almost a third of the workforce and currently represents about 40% of PPP. Despite the problems of lack of renovation and new technologies of some large companies, foreign investment from Germany, Japan and the United States and other developed countries is allowing the installation of new industries, especially automobiles and the improvement of heavy industry .
Mining focuses on energy sources such as coal and lignite, in addition to nuclear energy. This causes high levels of environmental pollution and non-compliance with the Kyoto protocol. Services have undergone great growth, with 57% of the population employed in this sector in 2003, contributing 55% to GDP. The most dynamic of the sectors is tourism and the one that has created the greatest problems due to lack of competitiveness and small size is banking, in general, financial services.
In 2005, the economic growth of the Czech Republic is three times faster than that of most EU countries and the first foreign trade data show that in the first half of 2005 there was a trade surplus of 40 million euros.
The first vestiges in the place that Prague occupies today date from the Paleolithic. The first stable settlement is considered to have been that of the Celtic tribe, around the 6th century BC. of Christ and settled south of present-day Prague. The town was called Závist. Later this tribe was replaced by the Germanic people and later by the Slavs, who remained from the 4th century, although for a period they were conquered by the Avars.
It was founded in the latter part of the 9th century with the construction of the castle on the right bank of the Vltava River. According to legend by Libuše, who later married Přemysl and started the Přemyslida dynasty. This castle is known as Vyšehrad and is not the current Prague Castle, which was erected on the opposite side of the river.
Prague very soon became the settlement of the kings of Bohemia, some of whom reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In the 13th century, King Otakar II founded the Malá Strana neighborhood (small side). Which sits on the opposite side of the river.
The city flourished during the 14th century under the reign of Charles IV, who ordered the construction of the New city, united the urban centers on both banks of the river through the famous Charles Bridge (which replaced a previous bridge from the 12th century that was collapsed in 1342) and led to the construction of the first Central European University. In the 15th century, due to political and religious upheavals between Jan Hus and King Sigismund, the Hussite Wars developed.
Bohemia became part of the Habsburg dominions in 1526, making Prague the capital of an Austrian province. At the beginning of the seventeenth century the election of Ferdinand II, a Catholic, as King of Bohemia caused anger among the Bohemian nobles, of Protestant religion. When Ferdinand II sent two Catholic councilors to prepare for his arrival in Prague, they were kidnapped and thrown out of a castle window, known as the Defenestration of Prague. These events led to the Thirty Years War, whose main consequence was the sovereignty of the German provinces, despite remaining under the German Empire.
During the Austro-Hungarian rule, in the 19th century it became the center of Czech nationalism and its cultural and intellectual activity was brilliant, with the construction of the National Museum, the State Theater and the Rudolfinum.
First World War
In 1918, as a consequence of the First World War, Czechoslovakia was founded, and the new president of the republic Tomáš Masaryk made Prague the seat of his government and the capital of the Czech state.
Between 1939 and 1945 Hitler’s army occupied Prague. The city, hitherto multi-ethnic in character, witnessed the persecution of the Jewish people. Many were captured and sent to Concentration Camps, where most were exterminated.
In 1945 the American army bombed the city, mistaking it for Dresden, causing the fury of the Czechs. A few days later the Soviet army liberated the city and the Czech citizens took revenge at their hand, causing the death of several citizens of German origin.
After the Second World War
After World War II, the Czech Republic became part of the socialist camp allied with the Soviet Union.
In 1989 Prague abandoned socialism. Being the center of the Velvet Revolution during the fall of socialism. Four years later, in 1993, the division of the Czech Republic and Slovakia was peacefully decided, becoming the capital of the Czech Republic. In September 2000, the Prague Protests against Globalization during the summit of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank led to an urban guerrilla against the police. More than 15,000 protesters participated in one of the largest protests against globalization and capitalism in history. In August 2002 the river Vltava overflowed with a flow greater than 5,100 m³ / s causing serious damage to the city. It took her two years to recover.
The Prague Castle (Pražský hrad) with 570 meters long and 130 wide, is considered the largest medieval fortress in the world. Inside you can visit the Cathedral of Saint Vitus, the Royal Palace, the Lobkowizk Palace, the Basilica of Saint George, the Gold Street, the Royal Garden, the Loreto Church, the Powder Tower and the Daliborska Tower. We can also say that it has several primacies:
- First of all, it is the largest castle in the world, which is why it is registered in the Guinness Book of Records.
- It is also the most visited Czech historical monument by tourists. * It is the most important among Czech castles, because it has always been the seat of the king and is currently the seat of the president.
- It belongs, without a doubt, to the most beautiful castles in our country.
- It is a unique specimen in every way, and is a must for all tourists.