Georgia State History

Georgia History and Society

Georgia is a country located on the border between Europe and Asia located on the Black Sea coast, south of the Caucasus. Former republic of the former Soviet Union, it shares borders with Russia to the north, and with Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan to the south. Tbilisi is the capital city of Georgia according to itypemba.


Medieval stage

The Romans conquered with Pompey the coastal part of Georgia to which they gave the name of “Province of Lazicum”, while they reduced to vassalage the kingdom of Iberia. For seven centuries Roman Georgia was controlled by Rome and Constantinople, leaving an indelible mark on the Christian religion of the Georgians. These two Georgian kingdoms in ancient times, Iberia in the east of the country and Colchis in the west, were among the first nations in the region to adopt Christianity (317 and 523, respectively). Egrisi frequently witnessed battles between rival Persia and the Eastern Roman Empire, both of which sought to conquer Georgia from time to time after the second century AD.

This made it easy for the Arabs to conquer Georgia in the 7th century. In the early 11th century, the rebellious regions were liberated and united with the kingdom of Georgia. Beginning in the 12th century, Georgia’s dominance extended over much of the southern Caucasus, including northeastern areas and almost the entire north coast of what is now Turkey. This kingdom of Georgia, which was tolerant of its Muslim and Jewish subjects, was subdued by the Mongols in the 13th century. The consequence of this was that the different local governors fought for their independence from the central Georgian government until the total disintegration of the kingdom in the 15th century.. The neighboring kingdoms took advantage of the situation, and from the 16th century the Persian and Ottoman Empires subjugated eastern and western Georgia, respectively. The governors of these regions, who had partly retained their autonomy, organized rebellions on several occasions. Successive Persian and Ottoman invasions weakened the local kingdoms and rebellions. As a result of the wars against the Islamic states the population of Georgia was reduced to 250,000 residents.

Shevardnadze independence and rule

On May 26 of that year Zviad Gamsakhurdia (Gamsajurdia) was elected as the first president of independent Georgia. However, Gamsajurdia was deposed in a bloody coup between December 22, 1991 and January 6, 1992. The coup was instigated by the National Guard and a paramilitary organization called Mkhedrioni, which was said to be supported by Russian military units based in Tbilisi. The country was embroiled in a civil war that lasted almost until 1995. Shevardnadze returned to Georgia in 1992 and joined the coup leaders – Tengiz Kitovani and Jaba Ioseliani – to head a triumvirate called the “Council of State.” In 1995, Shevardnadze was officially elected as president, at the same time that two regions of the country, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, quickly found themselves in dispute with other local separatists, leading to wars and inter-ethnic violence. Supported by Russia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia maintain de facto independence from Georgia.

More than 25,000 Georgians were expelled from Tskhinval as well, and many Ossetian families were forced to abandon their homes in the Borjomi region and were displaced to Russia. An estimated 10,000 people were killed, most of them civilians killed in ethnic cleansing operations.


Day 26 of August of 2008 the decrees by which the independence of Abkhazia and Ossetia South recognized that both regions had declared in the early 90 ‘s Russia brandished the Georgian attack on Ossetia South as the main reason for the recognition of the independence of secessionist regions. These international recognitions have not been imitated by any other state, with the exception of Nicaragua and Venezuela, (Belarus declared its intention to follow in Russia’s footsteps “in a few days”), in addition to not having the support of the UN and being rejected by the European Union, United States and its allies. Some international analysts have seen in this case a response from the Kremlin to the independence of Kosovo in February 2008, supported largely by the United States and by several European countries (Spain chose not to recognize the unilateral independence of Kosovo).

In Georgia, the country’s roads and streets were blocked by protesters demanding the unity of the Georgian country. Meanwhile, in the pro-independence republics, the population took to the streets to celebrate the recognition of their independence. The 15 as December as 2009, Nauru recognized Abkhazia as a state, restoring diplomatic relations. This makes it the first state with which Abkhazia has signed a diplomatic relations agreement.

Social development


Georgians, who represent 70% of the population and who preserve their own culture and language, are divided into four main groups: the Mingrelians to the West, the Lazes to the SW (although at present the majority are settled in Turkey) The Svans to the N and the Georgians proper to the E. The second ethnic group is made up of the Armenians, the third the Russians and the fourth the Azerbaijanis; there are also Ukrainians, Kurds, Georgian Jews, and European Jews.

The most populated regions of this new state are those of the western Colchis plain and the mid-altitude areas of the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus. Although Georgia is primarily an agricultural country, 52% of its population lives in cities. In addition to the capital, Tbilisi, located in the SE of the country on the banks of the Kura River, there are other urban centers of medium size and importance such as Kutaisi, Rustai and Batumi. Tbilisi, where more than a fifth of the population is settled, has become, thanks to its strategic location, a prominent administrative center and a renowned industrial city.


The majority religious belief is Christianity, and the main institution is the Georgian Orthodox Church; the Islam is professed by Azeris and Kurds.

Georgia State History