Ghana Geography and Population

Ghana – Geography

Ghana – geography, Ghana has a tropical climate everywhere with fairly constant temperatures throughout the year. The country can be divided into three regions, which are mainly dependent on rainfall differences. To the south, there are two rainy seasons, March-May and August-September; to the north there is only one, May-August.

In the coastal region there is a fairly dry savannah area with limited cultivation opportunities. Local wind conditions prevent the rainforest from reaching the coast. Here, the capital, Accra, with the port city of Tema spreads rapidly into the landscape. Agriculture in the region is predominantly cattle breeding.

The rainforest, by the way, dominates the southern part of the country and covers more than half of the area here. The area is densely populated and has intensive farming. The main foods are the tubers manioc (cassava), yams and taro. In addition, corn and vegetables such as tomato, onion, pepper, eggplant and okra are grown. There is a modest cattle herd as grassland is sparse. Animals such as goats and poultry that feed on waste, together with game, constitute the most important animal protein sources. Cocoa was introduced as a sales crop in 1876. Cocoa exports began in 1891 and in 1911 Ghana was the world’s largest exporter with 40,000 tonnes annually. It rose to 350,000 in the 1930’s when diseases began to ravage the cocoa plants. In mid-1960 reaching annual production above 1/2 million. t; production fell towards the 1990 half, but has since grown to record heights up to 3/4 million. The entire production is exported and Ghana, which once had more than a third of world production, now accounts for 10%.

The agricultural unit of operation is the family, which is both a producer and a predominant consumer of production. The operation is based on moving land use with welding technology. Population growth has meant that the quarrying periods have been shortened, resulting in reduced production. Cocoa production also stems from family use.

There is extensive felling of trees in the rainforest area, not least for export. In addition, the fruits of the oil palm are important and there is a modest rubber production. The heavy logging, together with the intensive agricultural production, has led to extensive destruction of the rainforest. Attempts to introduce new forms of farming, state and cooperative farming have all failed.

The Northern Savannah covers 40% of the area and holds 20% of the population, but contributes only 10% of GDP. Agriculture is the predominant profession here and yams, cassava and cereals, especially millet, but also maize and increasingly rice are grown. Cattle keeping is important. The mode of operation is also here sweat use. The traditional agricultural implements, chop and chopping knife, are replaced by beef plow. The use of manure from the cattle has allowed the cultivation of the field fields to be made permanent.


Ghana has a very young population and a large population growth (2.1%, 2006), which is however declining. The government has launched campaigns for better family planning. The family is the main element of social life everywhere, and it provides social security. The families are joined together in clans within the ethnic groups. The relationship to this affords identity and social insurance, but it can also create tension between the groups. The most important groups are ga on the coastal savannah, ewe in the eastern part, fanti along the coast to the west and ashanti in the rain forest around Kumasi. In addition, there are a very large number of smaller ethnic groups, including brown, ahafo and akimin the rainforest and dagomba, mamprusi, konkomba and sisala in Northern Ghana.

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Mining and other occupations

Gold mining has deep historical roots in the central forest region. Around Obuasi, approximately 50 km south of Kumasi, gold is found in concentrations so high that the world’s richest square kilometers are spoken. Diamonds are extracted partly by leaching from rivers and partly in a large plant at Akwatia. Manganese is extracted at Nsuta north of Takoradi and there are large bauxite deposits. Salt is recovered from the lagoons along the coasts.


The industry is very modest and predominantly aimed at the domestic market. Textiles, furniture and canned goods are produced, and there are breweries and smaller car assembly plants.


The central and eastern part of Ghana is made up of a large sandstone basin, the Volta Basin. The Volta River has its origins in Burkina Faso and runs like the Black, Red and White Volta north-south through this basin. The edges of the basin form low mountains both to the north and to the south. Where Volta cuts through the southernmost mountains, the 1963-65 Akosome settlement, which covers the 8500 km 2, was constructedlarge Voltasø, one of the world’s largest artificial lakes. The associated hydropower plant supplies electricity to all major cities and mines. The cities of Northern Ghana also receive electricity from this, but consumption here is modest. However, the large investments in the dam have proved extremely valuable to Ghana in light of the energy crises. Drought sometimes causes problems for agriculture and hydropower production, most recently 1998. In 1995, it was agreed to establish a West African gas pipeline from Nigeria to Ghana; it is expected to be put into operation in 2006. In addition, Ghana itself started natural gas production in 1997.


The rail network connects Accra, Kumasi and Takoradi. It passes the main mines and the main cocoa and timber producing areas. In Northern Ghana, road traffic is the only mode of transport. Work is underway to develop the transport system on the extensive Voltasø.


Virtually all purchases are made in markets and along the streets, and women dominate the trade. There are also a large number of crafts. The lack of employment opportunities in agriculture and industry for the growing population means that this so-called informal sector is growing strongly.

Economic development

Ghana’s first 40 years as an independent state have been marked by rapidly changing governments and several military coups. Economic reforms and planning initiatives did not have time to work until others were set in motion. Many young people have moved to the cities where they are trying to cope with loose jobs in small production and trade. They disengage from family and tribal relationships and pose a growing threat to traditional social order. Their hopeless future ties them into gangs based on crime and violence.

Ghana – language

Ghana – language, Speaking approximately 50 languages ​​in Ghana, all Nigerian-Kurdish. The Kwa languages akan, ewe and ga-adangme-krobo are spoken by respectively. 39%, 11% and 6% of the population (2004). Gur languages dagaari, dagbani, gurenne and kusaal are spoken especially in the northern part of the country. The official language is English. For culture and traditions of Ghana, please check allunitconverters.

Ghana – religion

Ghana – religion, The majority of the population is Christian, more or less equally divided among Catholics and Protestants. approximately 15% are Muslims with the highest prevalence in the northern part of the country, where also the indigenous religions have retained a number of features that characterize indigenous religions in Africa; see Africa (religion); scattered parts of it are fused into the Christian conception of life and cult.