Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou is the Chinese name of the city, but the Europeans called it Canton. This is the largest economic and cultural center of South China, as well as one of the oldest cities in the world. Guangzhou was founded in the 3rd century. BC. It has long served as a seaport that attracted foreigners. In the II century. AD they were Romans and Indians, after 500 years – Arab traders who established strong trade ties between China and the Middle East. In 1557, the Portuguese established a colony in Macau and appeared in Guangzhou, and thirty years later the Jesuits appeared. In the 17th century under pressure from the British, Canton was officially opened to foreign trade.
Guangzhou is bounded by Mount Baiyun (White Cloud) from the north, and from the south by the plain of the Pearl River Delta (Pearl River). Three rivers merge here: Dongjiang, Xijiang and Beijiang. Zhijiang flows through the city itself. Check smber for provinces in west China.
In all of China, it is difficult to find such a city in terms of a variety of attractions, like Guangzhou.
Temple of the Six Banyan Trees (Liu Rong) was built in 537. The second name of the temple was given by the famous poet and calligrapher of the Northern Song Dynasty, who was so fascinated by the six banyan trees growing in the courtyard of the temple that he invented two special characters for them. Inside the complex is the highest in the city, the Flower Pagoda, 55 m high, in which the great monk and teacher from India stayed Bodhidharma. The pagoda overlooks the entire city. The temple houses an ancient bronze Buddha statue and a Guanying Buddha statue. This building currently houses the Guangzhou Buddhist Association.
Guangxiao Temple is the oldest and largest Buddhist temple in Guangzhou. Its age is 1700 years. Initially, it was the residence of Prince Nanyue, and in 1151 it was turned into a temple. It includes the following buildings: the main gate, the Palace of the Heavenly King, the main palace of Daxiongbaodian and the Yifat Pagoda.
Mausoleum of the Kings of the Nanyue Principality represents the tombs of the second generation of the Nanyue kings, with a history of about 2100 years. From the outside, this building looks quite modern, but inside it keeps the memory of bygone times. The museum displays more than 1,000 cultural relics recovered from tombs. Among them is the gold seal of Prince Wendi, the first found gold seal of the princes and emperors of the Western Han.
The Chen Family Chapel is located on Zhongshanqilu Street. It was built in 1890 at the expense of representatives of this family from 72 counties of Guangdong province. The chapel is a typical example of the ancient architecture of the southern regions. It has 3 entrances, 9 halls and 6 courtyards. The total area of the building is 10,000 m 2. Today it houses the Guangdong Folk Museum.
Sun Yat Sen Museum was built in 1931 in memory of a great revolutionary in modern Chinese history. The museum occupies 60,000 m 2. The building itself, resembling a traditional Chinese palace in the shape of an octagon, is an architectural monument. It consists of a gate with an arch, a main hall decorated with gold and jasper, and multi-storey buildings to the west and east.
The Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs in Huanghuagang Park was built in memory of the 72 who died in the battle on March 29, 1911 during the revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. It was erected in 1918 with the money of the Chinese from all over the world, this is the most famous revolutionary monument of pre-communist China. During the construction of the mausoleum, a variety of ideas and architectural symbols of freedom and democracy were collected, up to the Statue of Liberty in a reduced version.
The Huangpu Military Academy was established by Sun Yat-sen with the help of the CCP and the Soviet Union to train officers. It was opened on June 16, 1924 and at first was called the Land Officer School. In January 1988, the site where the Huangpu Military Academy was located was turned into a museum subject to state protection. From the former military school there was a gate, a stele in memory of Sun Yat-sen, the house in which he lived, a club and a swimming pool. The academy is located on an island 20 km from Guangzhou.
Huaisheng Mosque (Huaisheng) in the Yuexu region was founded in 627. Presumably, its founder was the uncle of the prophet Muhammad. The name of the mosque means “Remember the Prophet”. Inside it is a minaret called Guangta, or Smooth Tower.
Temple of the Sacred Heart (Shi Shi Jiaotang) is a Catholic temple built by the French architect Guillemin at the end of the 19th century. in gothic style. The Chinese call it “stone house” because it is built entirely of granite.
No. 13 Luhulu Street houses the Guangzhou Art Museum. Here are collected paintings in the style of “guohua”; oil paintings; calligraphic works, engravings, watercolors, caricatures, sculptural works, Tibetan tanks, bronze, porcelain.
Qingping Market (Qingping) is one of the first “free markets” generated by the economic policy of Deng Xiaoping, where peasants could sell their products. This is one of the most important and controversial sights of Guangzhou. Here, tourists choose the animal they like, buy it, kill it themselves or give it to the cook, cook food from it and eat it right there. Near the entrance – the usual collection of medicinal herbs, spices, dried scorpions, snakes, skins of leopards and tigers, poisonous mushrooms, bark of trees of various species. Next come living animals: monkeys, turtles, owls and pigeons, aquariums with fish, frogs, toads and salamanders, anteaters, dogs and raccoons. Shamian Island begins near Qingping Market(Shamian), which is separated from the embankment by a narrow and shallow canal. The British and French built their villas and commercial offices, banks and hotels here, other powers opened their consulates. Chinese access to the island was limited. In 1949, the PRC regained control over Shamian, but even many years later, the Chinese here have the feeling that they were in a foreign land. With 94 hectares, Yuexiu
Park is the largest park in Guangzhou. It is located in the north of the city. Here is the sculpture “Five Sheep”, which is a symbol of the city. Although for many Russian-speakers the word “ram” is associated with something not very euphonious, for the locals it is a symbol of good luck. One of the names of Guangzhou even is the “City of Sheep”. Zhenhai Tower, also known as the Five-storied Pagoda, is the only remaining piece of the old city. It was built at the end of the 14th century. The height of the pagoda is 28 m, and a good view opens from its upper floor. The 12 cannons in front of the tower are remnants of the occupation of Canton by English and French troops in the Opium Wars. The pagoda now houses the city museum, which tells about the history of Guangzhou. from Neolithic times to the beginning of the 20th century. To the south of it rises the monument to Sun Yat-sen, built in 1929 on the site of the temple of the goddess Guanyin. On the territory of the park there is also Mount Yuesyushan, three artificial lakes, on one of which you can ride a boat, greenhouses, pavilions and tea houses. Every year, a large spring fair and an autumn exhibition of chrysanthemums are held here. Literally a few steps from Yuexiu, on an area of 8 hectares, there is an Orchid Garden. In winter there is nothing to do here, all you see is just rows of empty pots, but in summer it is quite beautiful. The entrance fee of 2 yuan includes a cup of tea by the pond. Guangzhou
Aquarium is a place where tourism, recreation, education and environmental research are combined. More than 10,000 marine animals, which are representatives of 200 species, live here, among which there are many valuable and rare species. The aquarium has a tunnel, a circular observation corridor, a section of sharks, a performance hall for tamed animals, a seal pavilion, an aquarium of ornamental fish, etc. The Xiangjiang Nature Zoo is located in the village of Licun in one of the districts of Guangzhou. It has areas for walking and viewing by car. Especially for tourists, a night trip by car is arranged, during which you can observe the life of nocturnal animals and admire the lunar landscapes. Guangzhou Zoo was built in 1958. Almost 5,000 animals, representing more than 450 breeds, live on an area of 3 hectares. Guangzhou Zoo is the largest urban zoo in southern China.
In Panyu Xiangjiang Natural Zoo, animals and animals are collected for research; there are also scientific and educational excursions. Many rare animals have taken root in the zoo. The total number of breeds is 400, and the number of animals is 20,000.
Located in Huangcun Village, “World in Miniature” covers an area of 480,000 m2. Here, in a reduced form, outstanding architectural monuments of the world and the most famous landscape places are reproduced. In addition, there are 6 large concert halls in the park, reproducing world-famous theaters – the Epoch Square, the Paris Opera House, the Arab Theater, the English Theater, etc., and the attraction department.
The Space Travel Park is located on Daguanlu Road. It is the largest space-themed park in China. There are about a dozen pavilions and platforms where spacecraft models are exhibited, including the camera of the Shenzhou-2 spacecraft returning from space to earth, the Changzheng-3 launch vehicle – the most powerful Chinese-made rocket, as well as models of foreign space technology.
Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street is one of three citywide commercial centers. The street stretches for 800 m. Here tourists can spend the evening shopping in more than a hundred shops or in one of the many restaurants.
One of the specific tourist activities in Guangzhou is evening boat trips on the Pearl River. The route starts on the lake of white geese and ends on the island of Arshadao. On the way, passengers can admire 30 cultural and landscape sights.
The surroundings of Guangzhou are very picturesque. Baiyun Mountain has long been one of the main attractions of the city. Here you can see the Mosilin Peak shrouded in clouds, the botanical garden, the Mingzhulou tower, the Nengzhensi temple, the Qiulong spring. There is a funicular in the mountains. Its highest station is at the top in the park, the lowest one is on the east side of Yuntai Garden. Yuntai Garden covers an area of 120,000 m 2. It is laid out in the style of the southern Chinese estates that existed south of the Qinglin mountain system, but at the same time the garden builders borrowed elements of western garden construction, for example, the garden has a glazed greenhouse and a pond.
Festivals are the pride of the city. Festive events are bright and varied. Using natural scenery as a backdrop and folk culture as a guide, these festivals emphasize creating a lively, joyful atmosphere and harmony. Some of the most famous festivals are: Spring Flower Fair, Dragon Boat Festival, Lotus Festival, Litchi Festival, China Tourism Arts Festival and Guangdong Entertainment Festival, as well as the International National Food Festival.