Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Araucan Indians lived in Chile. These tribes were distinguished by their militancy and cruelty. Therefore, when in 1536 the Spanish conquistodors led by Diego de Almagro began the conquest of the Chilean lands, the locals did not obey and gave a fitting rebuff to the conquerors. The Spaniards managed to capture only the northern regions of Chile, which were included in the Viceroyalty of Peru. A small colony was founded here, the population of which reached a thousand people. Gradually, it grew, and in 1778 this colony received the status of captaincy general.
In 1810, the Creoles born in the Spanish colony launched a struggle against the colonialists, which ended in 1818, and already on February 12 of the same year, Chile declared its independence. Then began an era of turbulent change of governments, which led to a political and economic crisis. It was possible to stop him only in 1833, when the constitution was adopted. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Chile.
At the end of the 19th century, power fell into the hands of the liberals, under whose rule Chile moved closer to Great Britain, and the copper mined in the country began to be sold on the international market. These achievements of Chile haunted neighboring countries. From 1879 to 1883 there was a Pacific War between Chile, Peru and Bolivia for borders. As a result of this war, the area of Chile increased by almost a third.
The 20th century in the history of Chile was marked as the era of military coups, and the most memorable was the coup on September 11, 1973, when Augusto Pinochet Ugarte became the head of the country. The military dictatorship of Pinochet was accompanied by repression against any possible opposition and the banning of political parties, at which time the country’s prisons were overcrowded. Many countries refused to cooperate with Chile, which led to the decline of the country’s economy.
In 1989, due to numerous protests from the population, a plebiscite was scheduled, during which most of those who voted were against the military dictatorship. In the presidential elections scheduled after the plebiscite, the leader of one of the democratic parties won. Now Chile is a democratic republic, in which there is a noticeable economic growth and an improvement in the standard of living of the population.
The natural area, which in other countries is called the steppe or savannah, in Chile is called Patagonia. This is an interesting area in terms of tourism, especially since it is considered one of the most environmentally friendly areas on the planet. In Patagonia, there are many lakes with the purest water, next to each lake there are tourist towns where you can rent fishing equipment.
Also, Patagonia is suitable for lovers of outdoor activities. In addition to hiking in the diverse landscapes of this region, you can go rafting on mountain rivers. It is worth visiting Torres del Paine National Park. The main attraction of the park is the towers, which were formed during the collision of two lithospheric plates, which gave rise to the Andes. Here you can also see such representatives of the fauna as guanacos, rhea, flamingos, cougars, foxes, condors, go on excursions to the fjords and glaciers.
The fjords were formed on the coast due to the retreat to the south of the vast glaciers that in ancient times covered the southern part of Chile.. Now this territory is a huge number of islands and just boulders protruding from the water, and in some areas, for example, near the city of O’Higgins, there are continental glaciers. In the San Rafael lagoon, you can see how icebergs form, as from the huge San Valentine blocks separate and slide into the ocean. The city of Punta Arenas is located on the hills on the shores of the Strait of Magellan and is the southernmost city of Chile.The city is interesting Regional Museum of Local Lore, which tells about the history and life of the region, and from the hill of La Cruz offers a beautiful view of Strait of Magellan From Punta Arenas trips to the Tierra del Fuego archipelago are organized. It was discovered by the traveler Magellan in 1520. The archipelago got its name due to the fact that the Indians made fires in the evenings on the coast of the islands. Later, settlers from Europe came here and created a sheep ranch. Now it is the center of sheep breeding in Chile.
In 1881 the archipelago was divided between Chile and Argentina. Its tourist center is the city of Ushuaia, which belongs to Argentina. In the city, in the building of a former prison, there is the Maritimo Museum, dedicated to the history of the archipelago. Having visited Tierra del Fuego, you can look at coastal glaciers, take a boat trip around the islands and see penguins.
On one of the small islands of the archipelago, the southernmost point of South America is located – Cape Horn. Because of the turbulent waters surrounding the cape, sailors call it Everest. The surface of this island is mountainous – the height above sea level is about 400 m. It must be recalled that it is cool in summer and cold in winter, so be sure to dress warmly before the trip.