The history of Egypt begins with the Paleolithic era, although there are only theories and assumptions on this score. The first traces of the appearance of agriculture in Egypt date back to the Neolithic era, the beginning of which dates back to the 10th millennium BC. At that time, two peoples of different origin lived in Egypt: one belonged to the African race and came from the center of Africa; the other – to the Mediterranean race and came from Central Asia. It is believed that there was also a third group of the population – people from the legendary Atlantis, who came to Egypt through Libya. Thus, two major civilizations were formed: the first, Mermida, in the north of the country in the Nile Delta, which founded the first cities; the second – in the South with the main city of Tas. This was expressed in the territorial division into “heseps” (provinces), which the Greeks called “nomes”. In total there were 42 nomes: 22 nomes in Upper Egypt, 20 nomes in Lower Egypt. It was at the dawn of Egyptian civilization, in what the Egyptians would call “the times of God,” when the Egyptian throne was occupied by King Osiris. He became the first to unite the two ethnic groups, but it was not for long. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Egypt.
3050 – 2715 BC – Early period (I-II dynasty). The story begins with King Narmer, who many scholars identify with the mythical King Menes, who unified Upper and Lower Egypt and founded the first of thirty-one dynasties that succeeded each other on the Egyptian throne until 332, when they were defeated by Alexander the Great. Memphis becomes the capital of the state. Hieroglyphics appear.
The ancient Egyptian writing did not convey vowel sounds, therefore all names and names are traditionally given in ancient Greek transcription, which significantly modified the original sound.
2715 – 2192 BC – Ancient Kingdom (III-VI dynasties). Many scholars consider this period to be the greatest in Egyptian history. The greatest pharaoh of this era was Djoser, the founder of the third dynasty. Under him, the first giant stone monument of Egypt was built – the first step pyramid at Saqqara. He also established the position of assistant to the king – the first assistant (vizier) in his administration, which eventually grew and the hierarchy of which became more complicated.
Under the founder of the fourth dynasty, pharaoh Snefu, the construction of smooth-walled pyramids began. But three other pharaohs of this dynasty surpassed their ancestor: Cheops, Khafre and Mikerin created the famous mortuary ensemble at Giza.
The fifth dynasty was called “Heliopolis”, since it came from the city of Heliopolis, and its first three pharaohs were conceived by the wife of the priest of the god Ra from the god himself. Since that time, all the pharaohs began to be called “Sons of Ra”.
2192 – 2040 BC – the first interregnum, the period of time from the seventh dynasty to the beginning of the eleventh. The collapse of the state, accompanied by civil wars, brings to life social, spiritual and cultural renewal.
2040 – 1650 BC – Middle Kingdom (XI-XIV dynasties). Mentuhotep I unites Upper and Lower Egypt, Thebes becomes a cultural and political center under the auspices of the god Amon. Governors in the provinces are deprived of power and influence. Egypt conquers the “golden” country of Nubia. Ahmes offers ways to determine areas and calculate fractions.
1650 – 1540 BC – second interregnum. Hyksos – nomads from Western Asia – conquer Egypt. New military equipment appears, for example, a war chariot. Papyri report the first surgical operations.
1540 – 1075 BC – New kingdom (XVIII-XX dynasties). The founder of the twelfth dynasty of pharaohs is Amenemhat I. This period includes the construction of temples in Karnak, Luxor, Abydos, Abu Simbel and tombs in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes.
1075 – 332 BC – Late period (XXI-XXX dynasties). The country is invaded by foreign conquerors – Libyans and Nubians, then it falls under the rule of the Persians.
332 – 30 BC – Hellenistic period. Alexander the Great conquers Egypt, founds the new city of Alexandria and declares himself pharaoh. After his death, the world empire collapsed. And Egypt, which fell under the rule of one of its commanders – Ptolemy, the ancestor of the Ptolemaic dynasty, turned into the center of Hellenistic culture. Cleopatra, supported by her beloved Caesar and Mark Antony, expands her dominions. Finally, defeated by Octavian, Antony and Cleopatra VII commit suicide. The Greek heritage finally passes to the Romans
30 BC – 640 AD – Roman period. Having become a Roman province since the time of Octavian (Emperor Augustus), Egypt falls into poverty, unable to feed the entire empire. Gradually, Christianity spreads here. Later, the persecution of Christians begins. After the Ecumenical Council of 451 in Chalcedon, a split occurred between the Egyptian (Coptic) church and the official Christian church.
642 AD – Islamization of Egypt. The Arab commander Amr ibn el-As conquers Egypt in 642, moves its capital to Fustat (near the old part of present-day Cairo) and carries out violent Islamization, ousting Christians. In the future, Egypt was ravaged by the Umayyads, Abbasids, Ikhshidids, Fatimids, Ayyubids, and from 1250 by the Mamluks, descendants of Arab mercenaries and bodyguards of Turkic origin. Under the Fatimids, Egypt for the first time becomes an independent state. In 969 Gohar founds Cairo.
1517 – 1798 Egypt is a province of the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Selim I subjugates Egypt, which is losing its economic and cultural significance. In the XVIII century. the Mamluks, demonstrating their loyalty to the Sultan in Constantinople, again come to power in Egypt.
1798 – 1799 – Napoleon, trying to take away the leadership of the British in the Mediterranean, defeats the Mamluks. In the naval battle of Abukir, east of Alexandria, the English admiral Nelson defeats the French fleet.
1805 – 1849 – New Egypt. The Albanian Muhammad Ali becomes pasha and Turkish viceroy in Egypt, expels the British from the country and orders the secret murder of his Mamluk rivals.
1869 – 1914 – After the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the construction of which cost a lot of money, England in 1875 buys up its shares. In 1882, England responded to the uprisings of the Egyptians against foreign domination by occupying the country.
1914 – 1953 – Kingdom of Egypt. Egypt, under a British protectorate since 1914, becomes an independent constitutional monarchy in 1922, led by King Fuad I. The continued military and political influence of England adds fuel to the fire of the struggle for independence led by Saad Zaghlul.
1937 – Farouk I ascends the throne. Since 1946, British troops have limited the occupation of Egypt to the Suez Canal zone. In 1948, Egypt is defeated in the Arab war against the new state – Israel.
1952 – 1953 – The struggle of the Free Officers organization headed by General Muhammad Naguib, which includes Nasser and Sadat, leads in 1952 to the overthrow of the unpopular King Farouk I. June 18, 1953 Egypt becomes a republic.
1956 – The nationalization of the Suez Canal, carried out by Nasser after the British left Egypt, causes the Suez Crisis. Israel occupies the Sinai Peninsula, England and France land their troops. The UN is seeking a ceasefire and the withdrawal of all troops from Egypt.
1967 – During the six-day war, Israel captures the Sinai Peninsula.
1970 After the death of Nasser, Anwar Sadat becomes the head of state, who seeks reconciliation with the West and embarks on the path of creating an Islamic state.
1973 – Egypt begins the so-called “October War”, or the Yom Kippur War. At the international negotiating table, Sadat manages to get consent to the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Egypt.
1979 – Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin sign the Camp David Accord, which undermines Sadat’s authority in the Arab world and leads to Egypt’s exclusion from the Arab League.
1981 – During an October parade, Sadat is shot dead by fundamentalists. Hosni Mubarak was appointed to his post.
1982 – The return of the Sinai Peninsula by Israel to Egypt (after 9 years of occupation) contributes to the restoration of Egypt in the Arab League.