The history of Hungary, as a formalized state, began about a thousand years ago, when the first Hungarian king, Istvan I (Saint), having received the blessing of Pope Sylvester II, laid the foundations of the Magyar statehood. Prior to this, the Roman province of Pannonia was located on the site of Hungary, which was regularly subjected to barbarian raids. Only at the end of the 9th century did the Magyars manage to gain a foothold here. Unlike the small Balkan states, rather weak and as a result absorbed by the Ottoman Empire, and unlike the mighty, but nevertheless disintegrating, then re-uniting Kievan Rus, the longevity and integrity of Hungary were symbolically embodied in the very fact of having the Holy Crown, transferred to the first Hungarian king head of the Roman Catholic Church.
Subsequently, the young state withstood a serious test in 1241, when the Mongol conquerors came from the east.
In the next few centuries, Hungary actively pulled itself up to Western European countries both in terms of cultural development and economic indicators, which was actively promoted by the developed mining of gold and silver in the territory of the republic. Foreign policy was also successful – under Lajos the Great, according to ancient historiographers, an empire was born, “the shores of which were washed by three seas.” In fact, everything was far from being so large-scale, but it was under Lajos that the Hungarian kingdom gained high authority and weight in continental Europe. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Hungary.
In the 16th century, a series of successful military campaigns carried out by Turkey actually fragmented the unified Hungarian state into several weaker and more dependent principalities. Only under Austrian influence, at the beginning of the 18th century, all parts of Hungary were subordinated to the Austrian crown, which practically corresponded to the country’s loss of independence.
The next significant stage in Hungarian history was the entry of the country into the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which happened in 1867. However, for a long time this promising union of two European states failed to exist – speaking on the side of Germany in the First World War, Austria-Hungary miscalculated – a military defeat led to its collapse and a significant loss of Hungarian territories. An attempt to take revenge in World War II also failed – the size of Hungary further decreased after the defeat of the countries of the pro-fascist coalition.
In 1947, the communists came to power in the country, which marked the beginning of another ambiguous period for Hungarian society. The uprising that broke out in 1956 was brutally suppressed by the troops of the Warsaw Pact countries. After that, Janos Kadar came to power, who developed the Goulash economic program, focused primarily on consumers. This program began to work, and by the mid-1970s. Hungary has become one of the most developed, liberal and wealthy countries in Eastern Europe.
In the late 80s, the communists were removed from power, and the country set a course to strengthen ties with its Western neighbors. As a result, in 1999 Hungary joined NATO and five years later – the European Union.
What to See in Hungary
The main attraction of Hungary, of course, is Budapest – a city with a rich history and cultural traditions, Europeans call the “pearl of the Danube”. Until the Second World War, the city was generally considered the musical capital of Central and Eastern Europe and was famous for its numerous theaters, and the creator of brilliant operettas, Kalman, glorified incendiary Hungarian melodies throughout the world.
Budapest is famous for its scenic views. For example, the panorama of the central, Buda part of the city overlooking the Danube, is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List of the planet. Lake Balaton is the second most important tourist attraction in Hungary.. This beautiful lake is the largest lake in Europe – its area is about 600 square kilometers. In summer, its shores attract numerous lovers of water and medical procedures, and in winter, fans of speed skating gather here.
The shores of the lake are practically dotted with various resort villages and medical sanatoriums, known in Europe since the end of the century before last.
Balaton connects with the capital of the country, Budapest, a modern, two-lane motorway, which merges in the Siofok region into the highway encircling the lake.
The motorway, 115 km long, can be overcome in 1 hour. By car, you can drive around the 200 km long Balaton highway in one day, stopping at places you like.
The attraction of the balneological resort Heviz is a unique, well-known thermal lake in Europe. It is fed by the waters of a powerful underground mineral spring. The water temperature in the lake in summer is 33-35 C, and in winter 25-28 C, so you can swim in it all year round. The water in the lake changes completely within three days. Highly active sludge, which covers the bottom of the lake with a layer of about 1 meter, contains mineral components and is recommended by specialists for mud baths. Thanks to the lush vegetation, a unique microclimate is created around the lake, the beneficial effect of which is felt from the first minutes of your stay at the resort.
The world famous cardiological sanatorium is located in the town of Balatonfured. Even the ancient Romans were aware of carbon dioxide springs emerging on the surface, the water from which was used both for drinking and for taking baths for medicinal purposes. Those who suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system consider it a great success to get treatment here.
Medieval Eger – the city of Hungarian military glory. It was here, between the two Northern Hills, that the Hungarians won a historically important victory over the Turks, under whose occupation the country had been for more than 170 years. In addition, the city is notable for the fact that almost all of the historical quarters, designed in the Baroque style, are perfectly preserved, and there is no better place for walking than the center of Eger. The main attractions of the city are the Eger Cathedral and a 40-meter minaret with hundreds of stairs leading to the top.