The first people began to settle on the island of Ireland from the 4th millennium BC. These were the Iberian tribes. In the 4th century BC. here came the Celtic tribes – the Gaels. By the beginning of our era, territorial associations – tuats, were formed here, each of which was headed by a king. From the beginning of the 5th century, Christianity began to spread on the island, the missionary Patrick was sent to Ireland, who later became the patron saint of the country. Since the 8th century, the island has been constantly attacked by the Vikings, who ravaged the dwellings. Only in 1014, having united, the local communities were able to defeat the Vikings.
The middle of the 11th century was marked by the arrival of the British in this territory. By the end of the 12th century, English feudal lords settled in the southwest of the country and enslaved the majority of the population. They took over the lands of the Irish clans and introduced English laws and government. Gradually, their dominance spread throughout the island, and in 1541 the English King Henry proclaimed himself “King of Ireland”. Since then, the British have become the upper strata of society, and the Gaels have become the peasants. In the 16th century, England adopted Protestantism, while the Irish remained Catholics, so their opposition intensified. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Ireland.
At the end of the 17th century, the ancient Gaelic language was banned, at which time the indigenous people were expelled from the northern part of the island. In 1719 the English Parliament gained the right to legislate for Ireland, and in 1727 the Irish lost their right to vote in elections to the English Parliament. This led to the formation of Irish patriotic societies from the end of the 18th century. An uprising was prepared, which the British successfully suppressed, as a result of which a union was signed in 1801, according to which Ireland lost the remnants of its autonomy. From the middle of the 19th century, landowners decided to use local lands for large pastures, so the indigenous population, which was engaged in the cultivation of potatoes and other crops, began to be forced out of their own lands.
In 1919, a war of liberation began in Ireland and in 1921 the country received the rights of the dominion of Great Britain with its own parliament and laws, but under the rule of the English crown, and became known as the Irish Free State.
In 1931, Ireland, together with other countries, forced Great Britain to unconditionally recognize the independence of the dominions. In 1937, a new republican constitution was adopted, which introduced the post of president, elected by the population of the country. During the Second World War, Ireland remained neutral, which further undermined its relations with Great Britain.
In 1949 the country was proclaimed an independent republic. The northern counties, from which the Irish were once expelled, remained part of Great Britain. Until now, this territory is a “stumbling block” in relations between the two states – military operations were carried out here, terrorist attacks were carried out. On April 10, 1998, with the assistance of the Republic of Ireland, an agreement on peace in Northern Ireland was signed. In December 1999, it was decided to remove from the constitution of the republic provisions on claims to the north of the island of Ireland.
Ireland has been a member of the European Economic Community since 1973.
On the Atlantic coast of Ireland, majestic “cliffs” (cliffs) rise along the coastline. These are sheer cliffs almost two hundred meters high. Very interesting trips to this area, during which you can watch birds and see beautiful landscapes. The highest cliffs are the Cliffs of Moher – located in the vicinity of the city of Doolin in County Clare. Their height reaches 214 m, and the length is 7 km. In the central part of the rocky area is the round stone O’Brance Tower, which was built in 1835. From its observation deck you can see the Aran Islands. Here you can see about 29 bird species and large colonies of Atlantic puffins.
County Clare is home to Barren National Park. This is an area with karst relief, covering an area of 300 square meters. km. The local karst landscape has been shaped by glaciers, rain and wind. The national park is literally pitted with underground caves, cracks, springs and abysses, among which you can see alpine and Mediterranean plants. In the park, it is worth visiting the Eailui Caves, which were discovered in 1940. Their length is about 1 km, and their age reaches 2 million years. An underground river flows along the underground halls, where you can see stalagmites and stalactites.
From the caves of Ireland, one can also distinguish Crag Cave, 3 km long, near the town of Trally and Marble Arch Cave southwest of Enniskillen, where you can ride a boat along the underground river.