Italy can rightfully be considered one of the oldest centers of civilization on earth, and the Roman Empire, whose traces can still be easily found in half of the European states, can be called one of the most powerful that ever existed. The history of the Italian state begins in 2000 BC, when settlers, presumably from the northern regions of Europe, began to cross the Alps and settle northwest and east of the Padan Plain, since the most fertile areas for cultivating the soil were at the mouths of the Volturio and Arno rivers and the Tiber.
753 BC – the formation of Rome – the legendary city on seven hills, which in themselves were a natural fortification, which is why they were inhabited by peasants and pastoralists even before the city was founded. It is believed that the boundaries of the future capital of the Roman Empire were determined by Romulus. From this moment begins the annexation of lands and the development of the Roman state. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Italy.
509 BC – In Rome, a republican form of government arises, in which the supreme power was represented by two consuls and the Senate. At this time, the institute of tribunes was created – spokesmen for the interests of the poorest segments of the population. The first victory of the tribunes was the adoption of laws in 451 BC, which limited the arbitrariness of magistrates and marked the beginning of Roman civil law.
390 BC – The sack of Rome by the Gauls, who invaded from the north.
Around 270 BC. The Romans regained dominance over the entire Apennine Peninsula.
264-241 BC – The First Punic War with Carthage, which ended with the victory of the Romans.
227 BC – Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica become Roman provinces.
219-222 BC – Second Punic War, again won by Rome.
197 BC – Spain becomes a Roman province.
149-146 BC – The Third Punic War, as a result of which the territory of North Africa and Macedonia become Roman provinces, Hannibal was defeated on his own territory.
73-71 BC – Spartacus leads a slave uprising in Italy, but is defeated by Crassus. Spartacus himself was crucified along with his associates.
49-44 BC – after Caesar, who was a talented commander, crossed the Rubicon River with his loyal troops and, having entered Rome, became a dictator in 46 BC, the situation in the state stabilized and civil wars stopped.
After the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC, initiated by Brutus and Cassius, the authorities in 43 BC. passed to Octivian, who later took the title “Augusta” (which means “honored by the gods”). Octivian created a huge Empire, which included all the countries of the Mediterranean. This period can be called the highest point of the power of Rome.
30 BC – Egypt becomes a Roman province.
13 – August becomes the Supreme Pontiff – the main clergyman of the state religion.
14 – August dies and Tiberius becomes emperor, which means the beginning of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
37 – 41 – The reign of Gaius Caligula.
54-68 – Emperor is Nero, who was forced to commit suicide at the end of his reign.
64 – a nine-day fire in Rome, after which the persecution of Christians begins. According to one version, Rome ordered to set fire to Nero himself, so that the sight of the burning city would awaken his inspiration and help compose a literary masterpiece.
80 – the consecration of the Colosseum and the opening of the games in it, which were an unheard of event at that time. In the same year, a fire broke out in Rome and the Capitoline temple was destroyed.
98-117 – the reign of Trajan. At this time, the Parthian Wars take place, and Dacia (the territory of present-day Romania) is conquered, Armenia and Mesopotamia are annexed, and the Roman Empire reaches its maximum size.
212 – Emperor Caracalla, who was subsequently killed by his enemies, grants Roman citizenship to all inhabitants of the Roman Empire.
235-280 – years of unrest in the Empire. During this time, 20 emperors managed to change!
260 – after a long persecution of Christians, a decree was signed to allow Christianity.
306-337 – reign of Constantine the First. At this time, the Empire, which had noticeably weakened during the time of unrest and internal strife, unites again, and rebuffs the pushing barbarians. During the years of his reign, an administrative reform was carried out, the capital was moved to Constantinople, and Rome remained the capital of the western part of the empire.
313 – Christianity was recognized as the official religion of the empire.
360-363 – reign of Emperor Julian. During his reign, there is a return to paganism, and the army is fighting in Britain with the local tribes.
395 – Emperor Theodore divided Rome into Western and Eastern empires.
476 – The collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
586 – Capture of Northern Italy and Tuscany, as well as parts of Umbria and Campania by the Lombards. Other parts of Central and Southern Italy remained under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire.
800 – Charlemagne, having accepted the imperial crown from the hands of Pope Leo III, became the emperor of the Western Roman Empire, thus there was a division of spiritual and secular power between the pope and the emperor. But, as a result of the accession to the throne of Charlemagne, Italy became dependent on France. Thus begins foreign domination over Italy. With the beginning of the invasions, numerous monasteries began to appear in the countryside, and this marked the beginning of the outflow of the population from the cities to the countryside, since the monasteries provided protection to all those who worked on their lands. However, starting from the 9th to the 10th century, a reverse influx of population into the cities begins, especially in those that were well fortified and located on high hills. Such cities were much better defended than monasteries. Gradually these free communes, or city-states, intensified, almost each had its own government, and the coastal cities had their own fleet. All cities were supposed to be subordinate to the central government, but during the long periods of absence of the emperor, each city was forced to rely on its own strength and ability to defend itself.
1454 – documentary consolidation of the balance of power between five large states (the Duchy of Milan, the Venetian and Florentine republics, the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples), many small counties and signoria.
1494-1559 – Italy becomes a bargaining chip in the political game between France and Spain. The Papal States, Florence, led by the Medici family, and Venice remain independent. The Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples go to Spain. At the same time, the rise of the Duchy of Savoy under Emanuel Filiberto (1528-1580).
1713 – As a result of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Dukes of Savoy receive Sicily and the royal crown. Lombardy departs to the Habsburgs, and in 1738 Tuscany.
1720 – Sardinia passes to the Duchy of Savoy instead of Sicily, after which the state begins to be called the Kingdom of Sardinia.
1796-1814 – Napoleonic period of rule in Italy. During this period, Italians get acquainted with the ideas of the French Revolution.
1797 – the end of the Venetian Republic, whose possessions go to Austria.
1860 – the unification of Italy under the rule of King Vittorio Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty thanks to the efforts of Camillo Benso Cavuar, his prime minister and Giuseppe Garibaldi, who captured Naples with the help of 1000 of his associates.
1922 – the Nazis come to power in Italy, led by Benitto Mussolini, or, as he was also called, the Duce.
1935 – Italy captured Ethiopia and declared it part of the Italian empire, which led to a conflict situation in relations with France and England and to rapprochement with Germany. Italy’s entry into the Anti-Comintern Pact (1936-1937)
1940 – Italy enters the Second World War on the side of Germany.
1943 – Mussolini’s government fell and political parties were re-established. In September 1943, the newly formed Badoglio government signed a peace treaty with Eisenhower, and a few days later most of the peninsula was occupied by German troops. With the arrival of German troops in Italy, anti-fascist resistance began to operate in the occupied territories. King Vittorio Emanuel III, together with the government, fled to the part of the peninsula liberated by the allies. Thus, Italy was again divided into two parts – the South, which, according to a temporary agreement between the parties, was ruled by the king, and the rest of the country occupied by the Germans, on which the Social Italian Republic was formed. The government of the liberated part of Italy signed an agreement with the allies.
1946 – Parliamentary government was restored. As a result of a referendum on June 13, 1946, the monarchy was abolished and Italy was proclaimed a republic.