According to historical evidence that has come down to us, as early as 8,000 years ago, primitive hunter-gatherers lived on the Japanese islands (the so-called Yomon era), who later united into one tribe. The tradition of rice cultivation came here much later – from Eurasia around 300 BC. According to legend, the Japanese Empire arose in 660 BC, when the first Japanese Emperor Jimmu ascended the throne. Before the birth of Jesus Christ (BC), Japan developed under the influence of Korea and China, which had a higher level of civilization.
Some time later, the Japanese took steps to strengthen their own statehood – in 604, Prince Shotoku adopted the first Constitution. In the 7th century, Buddhism came from Korea to Japan, which later became the state religion of the country.
At the beginning of the eighth century, Nara became the first capital of the state, and then Kyoto. The political power in the country also underwent noticeable changes. So, from the 12th century, a military regime was actually established in the country, and shoguns (military dictators) ruled Japan, and the samurai class appeared. In the 15th century, a civil war broke out in Japan that lasted 100 years. In the 17th century, Tokugawa Ieyasu came to power and declared a regime of isolation for 200 years, when relations continued only with China and the Netherlands. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Japan.
The second opening of Japan to the world began only with the arrival in 1853 of the American commander Matthew Perry. From that moment on, relations with America and Europe began to noticeably improve. At the same time, the power of the shogunate is weakening. The reign of the shoguns continued until 1867, when the last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, transferred power to Emperor Mutsuhito (Meiji). Although the Portuguese and Dutch had trade relations with Japan as early as the 16th and 17th centuries, they were very insignificant, and the country remained effectively closed to foreigners until the middle of the 19th century, when the United States of America signed a treaty with Japan.
At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, Japan began to pursue a rather aggressive foreign policy – as a result of several wars, by 1910 the island of Taiwan, half of Sakhalin and Korea were annexed. After the end of the First World War, as a result of which Japan got the islands in the Pacific Ocean that belonged to Germany, the country in the 30s waged several local wars with China and the Soviet Union. Imperial Japan entered World War II by attacking the American military base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. During the course of the war, Japanese troops occupied many of the French and British colonies and protectorates in Southeast Asia.
In August 1945, after successful operations carried out by the Allied forces, Japan capitulated, and on September 2, officially signed the act of surrender. According to the new Constitution, adopted on May 3, 1947, Japan lost the right to have a regular army, and the emperor transferred all legislative powers to the parliament. There are also serious disagreements with Russia over the ownership of the Kuril Islands, which Japan considers its northern territories.
The Japanese are always polite, friendly, often easily vulnerable. They attach great importance to the rules of conduct, ceremony.
In a Japanese house, in a restaurant, the floors are covered with tatami – straw mats. The Japanese never walk on them with shoes on, and there is a very high risk of offending them by not observing this rule.
At business meetings it is necessary to have business cards. Those who do not have them are considered “flyers” by the Japanese, and this greatly affects their attitude. In addition, they will definitely pay attention to the category of the hotel where the negotiating partners stayed. The buyer in Japan is quoted higher than the seller. During a business meeting, the tradition of exchanging gifts is preserved, the cost of which is usually not too high. In the process of negotiations, you can not look your partner directly in the eye – this, according to Japanese concepts, is elementary rudeness.
The Japanese hold sacred ancient traditions. Arrangement of ikebana flowers – needs no introduction. There is an opinion that Origami – the art of folding paper figures – soothes and relieves diseases. The tea ceremony – sado – is a manifestation of the Japanese philosophy of life. Kabuki theater – originated over 500 years ago and has not changed at all. Many people strive to touch the unique traditional art of geisha, although it is quite expensive.
It is also worth bearing in mind that the Japanese bath (“furo”) is not intended for washing, but for relaxation, relaxation. Before stepping into the bathroom, you must take a shower. After relaxing in the bathroom, do not drain hot water from it – the water in it is heated not only for you.