Primitive people settled on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan in the Stone Age. In the II century. BC. the southern agricultural regions of the country became part of the state of Parkan. In the 5th century nomads inhabiting northern Kyrgyzstan are also beginning to move towards a settled way of life. In the XIII century. these lands were conquered by the Mongols, and in the XV century. the Kirghiz come to them, possibly from Siberia. In 1710, the Kokand Khanate was formed in the south with the center in Fergana, by the end of the 18th century. it captures all of southern Kyrgyzstan. In the 1820s, Northern Kyrgyzstan was also conquered by the Kokand Khanate. In 1825, the Kokand fortress Pishpek, the capital of modern Kyrgyzstan, was founded. Northern Kyrgyzstan in 1855 – 1863 voluntarily becomes part of the Russian Empire. After the defeat of the Kokand Khanate in 1876, Southern Kyrgyzstan also passes to Russia.
After the October Revolution, the Kirghiz, together with all the peoples of Central Asia, became part of the Soviet Republic. In 1918 Kirghizia became part of the Turkestan ASSR. According to the national-state delimitation of the Soviet republics of Central Asia, on October 14, 1924, the Kara-Kyrgyz (from May 25, 1925 – Kirghiz) Autonomous Region was formed as part of the RSFSR, on February 1, 1926 it was transformed into the Kirghiz ASSR, and on December 5, 1936 – into the Kirghiz SSR. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz people gained national independence and national sovereignty peacefully after the collapse of the USSR. In October 1990, at a session of the Supreme Council of the Republic, a decision was made to rename the Kirghiz SSR into the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. On December 15, 1990, the Supreme Council adopted the Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Republic, and on August 31, 1991, the Declaration on the Independence of Kyrgyzstan. On May 5, 1993, the first Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic was adopted as an independent sovereign state. On May 10, 1993, Kyrgyzstan introduced its own national currency, the som.
On the territory of Kyrgyzstan there are a number of historical monuments of architecture, sites of ancient man and petroglyphs (rock art).
The largest group of antiquities near the resort town of Cholpon-Ata on the northern shore of Lake Issyk-Kul make up rock carvings – petroglyphs. These are drawings that were carved with a stone or metal tool on the sunlit side of a stone or rock.
Saimaly-Tash (translated from Kyrgyz as a painted stone) is one of the largest petroglyph galleries in the world. On the northeastern slope of the Ferghana Range (not far from Kazarman) 91,900 rock paintings dating back to the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC were found. At the Kögart pass, at an altitude of more than 3000 m, another 15625 images were found.
In the vicinity of the city of Tokmak (80 km from Bishkek) on the way to the picturesque Kegety Gorge of the Kyrgyz Range, the 21-meter Burana tower rises. The tower is over 900 years old, but it has been perfectly preserved. Scientists suggest that there was once a fortified settlement of Balasagun, the northern capital of the Turkic state of the Usun and Karakhanid tribes. The exposition of the historical and architectural museum located here consists of the Burana tower, balbals – stone idols (VI – X centuries), stones with rock art (1 thousand years BC) and other archaeological finds. Ak-Beshim settlement (Suyab) is located 6 km northwest of Burana – one of the cultural and economic centers of the Chui valley in the 6th – 7th centuries.
Jalal-Abad is the third largest city in Kyrgyzstan, it is located in the Ferghana Valley. According to legend, there was a source of Chashma-Ayub (“the source of Job”), which was visited by the prophet Ayub (biblical Job). Many of the local sources are known from the 2nd century BC. BC. and are considered sacred. At a distance of 5 km from the city there is a resort complex “Jalal-Abad”. In the Jalal-Abad region, it will be interesting to visit the Arstanbap tourist zone, located 70 km from the city of Jalal-Abad and famous for its walnut-fruit forests and waterfalls. Even in the village of Safid-Buland, there is the mausoleum of Shah-Fazil, which presumably belongs to the 11th – 12th centuries. The mausoleum, built of brick, is distinguished by the absence of external and rich interior decoration.
In the capital of Kyrgyzstan Bishkek you can visit the memorial house-museum of M. V. Frunze, the State Museum of Fine Arts, the V. I. Lenin Museum and the Historical Museum, all of them are located in the city center. Central Park is a kind of open-air sculpture museum. There are several theaters in the capital: the Kyrgyz State Opera and Ballet Theater named after A. Moldybaev, the Russian Theater named after N. K. Krupskaya and the Kyrgyz State Drama Theater. The famous Osh bazaar, where you can see national souvenirs, deserves a separate visit.
Osh is one of the ancient cities on the territory of Kyrgyzstan, he was on the Great Silk Road. The main attraction of the city is Suleiman-Too (mountain of Solomon), which is located in the city center. You can also see the numerous mosques of the 12th – 17th centuries, the ancient settlement of Ak-Buura, historical and local history museums, the museum of local crafts, the Kyrgyz Drama Theater and the Saltanat art gallery. One cannot pass by the bazaar in Osh, which is said to be almost older than the city itself.
Uzgen – one of the ancient cities in the south of Kyrgyzstan, located on the banks of the Oi-Tal River in the Kara-Darya Valley. The city has preserved medieval one-story buildings and narrow streets. It will be interesting to see the minaret and three mausoleums of the Karakhanid dynasty (XII century), decorated with beautiful brick ornaments. Not far from the city there is a recreation area Kara-Shoro with the mineral water spring of the same name and the tourist center Salam-Alik.