The settlement of the current territory of the Principality of Monaco began in the 10th century BC, when the Phoenicians came here and built the first fortification here. Later, the Greeks began to settle in these places, and in the 6th century BC. – one of the Ligurian tribes – Monoiki. In 122 BC. The Romans took over these territories and they became part of the Roman province.
After the weakening of the Roman Empire, from the 5th to the 10th centuries AD. barbarians and Arabs began to attack these lands. In 972, the Count of Provence Guillaume defeated the Arabs, after which this territory became a colony of the Republic of Genoa. In 1215, the adherents of the emperor (Ghibellines) started building a fortress here. These places have always been the occasion for civil wars between the adherents of the popes (Guelphs) and the Ghibellines. On January 2, 1297, the Guelphs, led by Francesco Grimaldi, took possession of the fortress of Monaco, and finally Monaco began to belong to the Grimaldi family in 1341 under Charles I. The rulers of Monaco enjoyed the support of the French kings, because there were plenty of applicants for this territory – Genoa, Milan and Savoy. In 1489, Monaco managed to achieve recognition of independence from the French king and the Duke of Savoy. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Monaco.
In 1523, the ruler of Monaco was killed and Bishop Augustin took his place, who entered into an alliance with the German emperor and the Spanish king Charles V, which led to a break in relations with France. Monaco came under the patronage of Spain, and the ruler had to take the feudal oath of Spain. Since 1619, the rulers of the state began to be called princes, this title was decided to be inherited.
A few years later, a war broke out between Spain and France. During this war, on September 14, 1641, Prince Honoré II signed an agreement with the French king Louis XIII, according to which Monaco was recognized as a free and sovereign principality under the protectorate of France. Since then, the principality has flourished. In the 18th century, there was an increase in the standard of living of the population, the main source of income for the state was maritime trade and the collection of duties from ships bound for Italy.
At the end of the 18th century, a war broke out in Monaco between those who wanted to preserve the sovereignty of the principality and those who were in favor of representative government. The latter won, and in 1793 it was decided to overthrow the Grimaldi dynasty. A month later, Monaco was annexed to France and became known as Fort Hercule. All members of the Grimaldi family were arrested, and the jewels of the princely court were seized.
After the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, the signed First Peace of Paris restored the independence of the principality, but left it under French protectorate. Later, on November 20, 1815, under the terms of the Second Peace of Paris, the principality was given under the protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia. After the French Revolution of 1848 and the emerging political instability in nearby European countries, the Kingdom of Sardinia withdrew its troops from Monaco, abandoning the protectorate.
In 1861, an agreement was again signed between Monaco and France, according to which France got most of the country’s territory, the area of Monaco decreased to 1/20 of its former size. This greatly undermined the country’s economy, then it was decided to attract tourists to the country. To do this, in 1865, a casino was opened in Monte Carlo and a customs union with France was created.
During the First World War, Monaco signed an agreement with France, according to which the French Republic recognized and guaranteed the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Monaco, but the government had to coordinate its foreign policy with France. In the Second World War, the Prince of Monaco fought on the side of France. In 1951, both countries signed a convention on mutual assistance in the field of customs duties, taxes, postal communications and television. In 1963 a new convention was signed. It provided for the introduction in the Principality of income tax on the principles of French taxation.
In 1993 Monaco became a member of the UN. Now Monaco is a recognized European center of tourism.