The territory of present-day Peru began to be settled 20 thousand years ago. In the 6th millennium BC. The Indians who lived here began to engage in agriculture and cattle breeding. Of the most famous local civilizations that have reached a high level of development, one can single out Chavin, Paracas, Tiahuanaco, Nazca, Mochica and Chima. In the 15th century A.D. this territory, together with the modern territory of Ecuador, part of Colombia, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, was conquered by a confederation of Indian tribes led by the Incas. Here they created an empire, which became known as the “Empire of the Four Directions”. Its capital was Cusco. At the head of the Empire was the Great Inca. Most of the population was engaged in agriculture and paid dues to the state. The Incas built roads and created a network of irrigation canals in the Peruvian coastal desert. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Peru.
In 1532, a detachment of Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro invaded the local territories. They took advantage of internecine wars and captured one of the contenders for the throne of the Empire – Atahualpa. The conquistadors demanded a huge ransom for his life, and as soon as they received it, they immediately executed the Inca. This led to the decline of the Empire. In 1533, the Spaniards captured Cuzco and founded the city of Lima (January 1535), which became the capital of the Spanish possessions in America. In 1543, Spain declared Peru its viceroyalty. Estates began to be founded here, local residents began to be converted to the Catholic faith, their labor was used to cultivate the land, and African slaves were also brought to work on plantations. The discontent of the peasants who worked on the plantations constantly resulted in numerous uprisings, which were hardly suppressed by the authorities. In 1820, the liberation army of General José de San Martin and Simon Bolivar entered the country, who fought for the independence of the Spanish colonies. The army won and on July 28, 1821, the independence of Peru was proclaimed.
This was followed by a series of territorial disputes with neighboring states, which were accompanied by short wars. The main changes in the life of the Peruvians came in the middle of the 19th century, when Marshal Ramon Castilla became president. Castilla abolished slavery and prepared for the adoption of a national constitution. However, Castilla was overthrown by a coup d’état. It should be noted that not a single president of Peru stayed in office for a long time, the ruling circles constantly waged an ongoing struggle for power among themselves. Such instability in the country forced each time to introduce a dictatorship, to carry out repressions, which more and more undermined the country’s economy.
Only with the advent of the 21st century did general elections begin to be held in Peru, and the authorities headed for the democratization of the republic. Until now, there are problems such as unemployment and poverty in the country, despite the rapidly developing economy.
Lake Titicaca is the world’s largest alpine navigable body of water. It was formed in a tectonic basin. The lake is known for its wildlife. Here is the National Reserve of the same name, where birds such as flamingos, Andean goose, gulls and grebes live. All dwellings in the surrounding villages are built from reeds growing along the shores of the lake. According to Andean legends, it is believed that the lake was the place where the first civilization was born, and in the 20th century, a city dating back to the 9th-10th centuries AD was discovered at its bottom. e. Entire floating islands built from reeds by the people of the Uros tribe are very interesting in this region. There are about 20 of them, up to 10 families live on each. There are also natural islands in the center of Titicaca. The capital of the lake is the city of Puno . It was founded in 1668 and lies at an altitude of 3800 m. Puno is considered the folklore capital of Peru. This is a very rich city, because it is surrounded by silver mines. There are many souvenir shops in Puno, where handicrafts of local craftsmen are exhibited, as well as all kinds of silver jewelry.
The main city of the Amazonian rainforests of Peru is Iquitos . You can only get here by boat. The city itself is interesting only for the weekly Belen market, which sells a variety of handicrafts of local peoples. Tourists come to Iquitos in order to travel through the tropical rainforests, which offer excellent opportunities for hiking. Multi-day jungle hikes or boat trips along the region’s rivers depart daily from the city. During the trip, you will be able to see the diverse flora and fauna of the selva, in addition, several boarding houses are open right in the jungle, where tourists can relax.
This is the most popular city among hikers and rock climbers. From here, tours of the highest parts of the Andes with the highest point of Peru begin- Mount Huascaran (6768 m). It is located in the northwestern part of the country at the foot of the Cordillera Blanca mountain range. The city often suffered from earthquakes, so it cannot be called beautiful. All houses are built here from gray concrete. However, there are many hotels of various levels in the city. All travel agencies, restaurants and shops are located on Calle Luzuriaggia.
Within the Cordillera Blanca massif there are 33 peaks, whose height is more than 6000 m. For unprepared tourists, the Isinco (5534 m) and Pisco (5752 m) mountains are suitable, and for experienced travelers Alpamayo mountain (5957 m), which is considered the most beautiful in this region. Trekking along the Cordillera Blanca can last from 2 to 12 days.