The first mention of the peoples who inhabited the current territory of Sweden dates back to the 1st century AD. These were the Getae in the south and the Svei in the north. Their possessions were divided into small principalities, the common tribal pagan center was the city near the modern city of Uppsala, whose high priests gradually took power into their own hands and became kings. They united the tribes and by the 11th century the Kingdom of Sweden was created, only the lands of the southwestern coast belonged to Denmark.
In the Viking Age, Swedish warriors rushed along the rivers in search of contacts with Byzantium and the Arab world, in addition, they raided neighboring lands, and in 1164 one of these campaigns ended with the conquest of Finland. At the same time, Christianity gradually began to penetrate into Sweden, and the final Christianization of the state dates back to 1248, thus Sweden became the last of the Western European states that submitted to the power of the Roman Church. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Sweden.
The next hundred years were characterized by a long internecine struggle of contenders for the royal throne. In 1397, at a meeting of representatives of the nobility of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, it was decided to put an end to civil strife, for this a common king for these three states was elected, who was crowned in Kalmar, hence the name of the new association – the Kalmar Union. Denmark was chosen as the dominant power, whose dominance in Sweden continued for another 120 years. All this time, ordinary peasants, as well as some nobles, dissatisfied with dependence on the Danes, raised uprisings against the Danish crown. In 1523, the Danes were driven out, after which the great Reformation began and the Lutheran religion was introduced. In 1544, King Gustav introduced a hereditary monarchy in the country.
From 1570, Sweden waged a long-term war with the Muscovite state, which ended in 1595 with the Tyavzin peace. Russia recognized the transition of Estonia under the rule of the Swedes and agreed to the shift of the border to the east. At the beginning of the 17th century, the reign of King Gustav II Adolf was also marked by numerous victories over neighboring powers – Poland and Russia, as a result of which Sweden became the leading power in the Baltic, it secured this title in 1658, when Denmark ceded the southern provinces to Sweden.
In 1700, another war broke out – the Northern War. Sweden opposed the coalition of Russia, Denmark and Poland. The Swedes invaded Russia in 1708, but in 1709 they suffered their biggest defeat at Poltava. The army was weakened, and the death of the Swedish king on the battlefield became the point in this war. This meant the end of Sweden’s dominance in the Baltic Sea, because under the peace treaty of 1721, she lost all the previously captured lands, leaving only Finland.
The country, exhausted by wars, adopted a new constitution, according to which royal power was limited in favor of the estate parliament of the Riksdag. In 1805, Sweden joined the anti-Napoleonic coalition. In July 1807, the Peace of Tilsit was concluded between Napoleon and Alexander I, according to which the Russian emperor undertook to force Sweden to join the continental blockade proclaimed by Napoleon. In February 1808, Russian troops invaded Finland, the southern part of which was quickly occupied by them. Alexander I proclaimed the accession of Finland to Russia.
From 1815, Sweden no longer took part in the wars, which gave her the opportunity to develop her economy. Even during the First and Second World Wars, Sweden adhered to a policy of neutrality. In the second half of the 20th century, the Social Democrats led by Prime Minister Olof Palme entered the political arena of Sweden. The subsequent history of Sweden is a series of re-elections, which significantly weakened the country’s economy.
In 1991, Sweden applied to join the European Union. After the Social Democratic Party won the next elections, in 1995 Sweden became a full member of the European Union.
Swedish Lapland is located above the Arctic Circle, there are practically no cities, and the landscape is dominated by mountain ranges covered with snow. This is a land of picturesque nature, which is carefully protected in numerous National parks. The most famous national parks of this region are Abisko, Padyelanta, Muddus, Sarek. Padjelanta and Sarek are the largest parks in Sweden, the area of each of them exceeds 200 thousand hectares, of which 90% are occupied by mountains. There are about 400 species of plants in Padielanta National Park, as well as a wide variety of animals, which is not typical for mountainous areas. Sarek National Park presents more than 200 mountains to tourists, the height of which exceeds 1800 m. 13 of the highest points of the country are located here. For lovers of hiking, Sarek is ideal, but its trails are very difficult and close to climbing, especially since there are no campsites in Sarek, so experienced tourists are recommended to visit it. Here you can meet such animals as bears, lynxes, wolverines, elks. In Abisko National Park, there is a deep crevasse that rises up from Lake Thornetrask. This place is one of the most popular for “winter” tourists, aspiring to see the northern lights with their own eyes. Muddus National Park is almost entirely occupied by dense forests and swamps, and the swamps around Lake Muddusjärvi are home to a large number of bird species. In the summer in Lapland, white nights are observed for 100 days, that is, the Sun does not set below the horizon, and in winter the polar night sets in for three whole months. It is during this season of the year that you can see the northern lights.
On the northeast coast of Sweden is the unique High Coast region. Throughout its length, you can see ledges and rocks made of red granite, which seem to rise from the sea. This area, included in the World Heritage List, stretches over 100 km from north to south. In the center of it is the Skuluskogen National Park.
Having been on a elk safari, you will be able to observe the life of elks in natural conditions. Such opportunities are offered in the Halleberg hunting ground in western Sweden.