History in Ukraine

History in Ukraine

The first settlements on the territory of Ukraine appeared in the early Paleolithic. Archaeologists have discovered sites of primitive people in the Southern Crimea, the Sea of Azov, the Middle Dniester region, in Volyn and in Nadporozhye. By the late Paleolithic, the entire territory of modern Ukraine was already inhabited. In the 7th century BC. Scythian tribes moved from Asia to the steppes of the Black Sea region. Traces of the Scythian culture can be found in the Kyiv cave monasteries, where graves with fairly detailed images of animals and humans have been preserved. After the Scythians, this territory was conquered by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Khazars. In the VII – V centuries. BC. Greeks began to settle in the Northern Black Sea region, creating slave-owning city-states here. The largest of them were Olbia, Tyra, Tauric Chersonese, Panticapaeum, which were major centers of agriculture, fishing, crafts and trade. In the 5th century BC. As a result of the unification of Greek cities on the Kerch Peninsula, the Bosporus state arose with its capital in Panticapaeum. It carried on active trade with Greece and Asia Minor, being the main exporter of bread for them. Architecture and applied crafts developed rather intensively in the Bosporus state. An acropolis was found in Panticapaeum (modern Kerch). From the 3rd century BC e. limestone tomb steles with reliefs depicting the dead in heroic form or scenes from their earthly past are distributed here. In the Bosporus state, original examples of antique painted ceramics arose – vases with stylized plant motifs, painted with mineral paints.┬áCheck a2zdirectory for old history of Ukraine.

In the III – VI centuries. AD, as a result of the great migration of peoples, the territory of Middle Transnistria is occupied by a union of Slavic tribes. In the ninth century from the union arises the ancient Russian feudal state of Kievan Rus. Kievan Rus reached its heyday in the 10th – early 11th centuries. The adoption of Christianity contributed to the strengthening of the position of the state. Kyiv became the residence of the metropolitans. The culture of Kievan Rus was highly developed. Architecture was greatly developed, writing developed.

In the XII century, Russia broke up into a number of separate principalities. On the territory of southwestern Russia, which occupied most of the territory of modern Ukraine, Kiev, Chernigov, Galicia, Vladimir-Volyn and other principalities stood out. In the XIII century, the southern Russian lands were invaded by the Mongol-Tatars, becoming the possessions of the Golden Horde. The coastal territories remained under their influence until the beginning of the 16th century. In the XIV – XV centuries. part of the principalities fell under the influence of neighboring states – Lithuania, Poland, Hungary. In the 15th century, the Cossacks moved to the territory of Ukraine, devastated by wars and plague, forming the Zaporozhian Sich, later divided between Poland and Russia.

From the 16th century, the state began to be called Ukraine. The period from the 16th to the 17th centuries was difficult for the state, subjected to constant attacks and robbery from the Commonwealth. In 1648 – 54 years. General discontent resulted in the Liberation War of the Ukrainian people, which led to the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. During this period, capitalist relations began to take shape in Ukraine. By the end of the 18th century, 200 large industrial enterprises operated here. Sewing, leather, shoemaking, blacksmithing, weaving and other crafts developed in the cities. Fairs acquired great importance, the number of which reached 2,000 in the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century, Ukraine became the main coal and metallurgical base of the Russian Empire. Active trade was carried out through the Black Sea ports.

In 1917-20, the Ukrainian People’s Republic, the West Ukrainian People’s Republic, the Ukrainian State and the Ukrainian SSR existed on the territory of Ukraine. During the Great Patriotic War, Ukraine was subjected to Nazi occupation.

In July 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine, and in June 1991 established the post of president of the republic.

Crimea itself is a landmark of Ukraine. There are many natural attractions on its territory – the Grand Canyon, Cape Aya, Novyi Svet Bay, the Kara-Dag volcanic massif, Mount Ayu-Dag and the Adalary rocks, Balaklava Bay, Yayla of the Crimean Mountains, the cuest gate of the Kachinsky Canyon, the Cape Martyan nature reserve, Uchan- Su and Dzhurdzhur, Mount Demerdzhi and Chatyrdag, numerous caves. Here are the Yalta and Karadag nature reserves, the Nikitsky botanical garden and the Crimean reserve and hunting economy. Among the man-made monuments, the Crimean Museum of Local Lore, the Kherson and Kerch Historical and Archaeological Museums, the royal palaces in Livadia and Massandra, the Vorontsov Palace in Alupka, the Dulber Palace in Miskhor, the Swallow’s Nest, the fortresses of Chufut-Kale and Mangup-Kale deserve attention in the first place., Khan’s palace and old buildings in Bakhchisarai, Genoese fortresses in Sudak and Balaklava, I.K. Aivazovsky in Feodosia, monasteries in Inkerman and Bakhchisarai.

History in Ukraine