According to one version, the first people appeared on the territory of the UAE about seven thousand years ago. As indicated by archaeological excavations in the 5th millennium BC. the peoples inhabiting the south of the Arabian Peninsula and the coast of the Persian Gulf learned to use groundwater for agriculture and created a complex irrigation system. At the same time, sea routes to Africa, India and Mesopotamia were first mastered. Later, in the I-III centuries BC. Semitic tribes lived on the territory of modern UAE. It was then that the Chaldeans appeared on the coast of the Persian Gulf, which some historians consider the most ancient Arab tribes. And at the same time, the Phoenicians appeared here, starting the formation of shopping centers, colonies, developing navigation. These colonies did not last long. Iran, which already had sufficient power at that time, put an end to the strengthening that was unprofitable for itself.
The revival came to the Persian Gulf regions along with Alexander the Great, who created the base of his fleet here in preparation for a campaign in the Indian Ocean. Trade relations resumed, which led to the construction of new ports and cities. Check a2zdirectory for old history of United Arab Emirates.
At the end of the 1st millennium BC. Semitic tribes from the center of the Arabian Peninsula began to gradually move to the Persian Gulf region. Somewhat later, they founded one of the first Arab states in the Tigris and Euphrates delta – Haraken with the capital Spasinaharak, on the site of the Greek port of Alexandria.
Islam came to the current territory of the UAE during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (mid-VI century AD). It was during this period of rapid development of trade and the flourishing of urban life that such centers as Dubai, Sharjah, and Fujairah arose. The cities became the capitals of independent sheikhdoms and sultanates, which later formed the Karmatian state in eastern Arabia, which lasted until the 11th century. The state was dominated by free peasants and artisans; they didn’t pay taxes. After the collapse of the state of the Karmatians, most of the sheikhs and sultanates by the 13th century AD. became dependent on Oman. And only in the XIV-XV centuries, when the Mongol detachments, having destroyed Baghdad, tried to subjugate the entire territory of the Persian Gulf, the sheikhdom with the center in the city of New Hormuz became one of the most significant states in this region.
Europeans rushed to the Persian Gulf at the end of the 15th century. After the sea route from Europe to India was opened, the ships following this route were plundered by the Arab tribes. Europe was not going to tolerate this.
First, the Portuguese at the beginning of the 16th century. established control over the region from the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese conquerors established their dominance here for almost a century, conquering the kingdom of Ormuz, Bahrain and Julfar (the modern emirate of Ras Al Khaimah).
The tranquility of the Portuguese monopoly was constantly threatened, both by the Arabs themselves and by Turkey. In this struggle, the once powerful Hormuz state again began to gradually fall apart into smaller sheikhdoms and sultanates.
At the very beginning of the XVII century. England, seeking to expand its political influence in the Gulf, founds the East India Company, which has the right to conclude any agreements and wage war with the countries of the Indian Ocean basin. This enterprise pretty much pushed Portugal out of its position and later it was the British who concluded an agreement with the sheikhs, proclaiming “freedom of navigation” in the Persian Gulf and obliging the latter to stop pirate attacks on English ships. The Arabs who lived in these places could not offer serious resistance to the colonialists, due to their small number and constant civil strife between different clans. The dominant tribe in the territory of modern UAE was and is the Baniyaz tribe, which originally inhabited the fertile oases of Liwa and Al Ain (the current emirate of Abu Dhabi), and also founded the city of Abu Dhabi. In 1833, one of the Baniyaz tribes – the Maktum clan – migrated from the oases and settled in Dubai, declaring the independence of the city. Thus was founded the Maktoum dynasty, which still rules the emirate of Dubai.
In 1835, a temporary truce at sea was concluded between the emirs and Great Britain. Since 1853, the Pirate Coast (as the British called the territories of the emirates) was called Trucial Oman and actually became a protectorate of Great Britain, which for more than a hundred years retained control over its defense and foreign policy.
By the beginning of the First World War, under the Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1913, England had the exclusive right to Trucial Oman.
Only with the beginning of oil production (before that, the main income of the Arabs was brought by the pearl trade) in the 50s, the principalities of Trucial Oman began to emerge from the crisis, still being under the British protectorate, which was opposed in 1964 by the League of Arab States. The League declared the right of the peoples of the Persian Gulf to full independence. The Labor government of England, which replaced the Conservatives, agreed with the validity of the demands put forward and in 1968 Great Britain announced its intention to withdraw its troops from the region by the end of 1971 and announced plans to unite Trucial Oman, Bahrain and Qatar into a single federal state. However, these plans were not implemented. After the withdrawal of British troops in September 1971, Bahrain and Qatar declared themselves independent states. December 2, 1971 six of the seven emirates of Trucial Oman announced the creation of the federation of the United Arab Emirates. The seventh emirate, Ras al-Khaimah, joined it in 1972. Sheikh Zayed Al Nahyan was elected the first president by the decision of the heads of the seven principalities included in the Supreme Council of the country. The country’s first interim constitution specified that the future capital of the country would be the city of Karama, which was planned to be built halfway between Dubai and Abu Dhabi. And only in 2001 Abu Dhabi became the permanent official capital of the UAE according to the constitution.
After the signing of the independence treaty and the cooperation agreement between the UAE and England, oil prices rose on the world market, which made it easier for the new state to take the first independent steps in the field of economy and foreign policy. Thanks to oil exploration and successful investment in the development of industry and agriculture, the UAE in the shortest possible time was able to achieve enviable economic stability and enter into foreign trade relations with the leading countries of the world.