Already in the Mesolithic, the Bak Son-Hoa Binh culture existed on the territory of Vietnam. In the middle of the 1st millennium BC. the period of the Dong Son culture began, which spread mainly in the north of the country. It is characterized by bronze items of high craftsmanship (ritual drums decorated with drawings, daggers, knives, axes). Stone tools, ceramics made on a potter’s wheel, clay models of houses, and some iron products were also found on the territory of the settlements. The Dong Son culture is thought to be related to the La Viet people, the ancestors of the modern Vietnamese. The Lakviets, who originally inhabited the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, gradually began to move south into the basins of the Xijiang and Hongha rivers, where they mixed with the local population. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Vietnam.
Around 257 BC The state of Aulac was formed by the Laviets. A short time later, the Hongha river valley was captured by the Chinese. Their thousand-year rule, marked by stubborn resistance from the Vietnamese and constant uprisings, ended only in 938 AD. e. In the 10th century, Vietnam won its independence and was named Dai Viet. In those days, the state had to wage continuous wars against invasions from the Chinese and Mongolian feudal lords: the Sung (XI century), Mongolian (XIII century), Minsk (XV century). The wars ended with a brilliant victory, and after each of them, Vietnam became stronger and more prosperous.
15th century considered the golden age of the Vietnamese Middle Ages. Cities grew rapidly, the irrigation network expanded, foreign and domestic trade, and cultural ties developed. Confucianism becomes the official ideology. Buddhism becomes the private religion of the ruling class, while at the same time finding wide recognition among the people.
In 1858, French troops invaded Vietnam, and 25 years later, in 1884, the entire country fell under French rule. Under the influence of the October Revolution in Russia, the national liberation movement intensified in Vietnam. On March 9, 1945, the Japanese liquidated the French colonial apparatus, driving them out of Indochina. After that, a partisan movement against Japan began.
On September 2, 1945, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was established. In pursuance of the Geneva Agreement, the country was divided into two parts and general elections were provided for in 1956 with a view to its reunification. North Vietnam remained the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with Hanoi as its capital. The south of Vietnam, called the Republic of Vietnam, was placed under pro-American administrative rule, with Saigon as its capital. The Saigon administration tried to prevent a general election, and so the people’s struggle for peace and the reunification of the country began again.
In 1956, the US military took the side of the South Vietnamese against the Communists of North Vietnam. The armed conflict escalated into a fierce war. In 1965, the Americans began a massive bombardment of North Vietnam. In total, more than 550 thousand military personnel were sent to the country during the war. However, the United States was never able to inflict a single major defeat on the rebels. The famous “Ho Chi Minh Trail” – underground channels for the supply of weapons and ammunition through the territory of Laos and Cambodia – provided them with everything necessary for the war. The morale of the partisans was exceptionally high, while demoralization was growing among the US soldiers – alcoholism and drug addiction flourished in their ranks, and pacifist sentiments were spreading. The war continued until 1973,
In 1975, the Vietnam People’s Army invaded the southern territories, the Saigon administration fell, and Vietnam was reunified. Currently, the country is a member of the UN, the ASEAN Regional Forum and the Asia-Pacific Economic Community (APEC); in 1995 a protocol on cooperation with the European Union was signed.