The territory of present-day Yemen became inhabited as early as the 2nd millennium BC. In the 2-1 millennium BC. such ancient states as Kataban, Hadhramaut, Aswan, Main and Saba existed here. The most powerful of them was the kingdom of Saba, which by the middle of the 1st millennium BC. occupied the entire south of the Arabian Peninsula and was known for its extensive irrigation system. But still, first of all, it was a trading state. Its territories were located at the crossroads of the main trade routes between Europe, Africa and India. The main products traded by local states were incense – myrrh and frankincense. From the 1st century AD Hamyarites began to appear in these places, who wanted to conquer all the commercial seaports of Saba. The confrontation between the two kingdoms ended with the fact that in the 4th century Saba became part of the Hamyarite kingdom. Under the Hamyarites, Judaism began to spread in the region. In the 6th century, with the support of the Byzantine emperors, the Hamyarite kingdom was conquered by the Ethiopians, who preached Christianity. At the end of the 6th century, this territory fell under the rule of the Sassanids. In the 7th century, when most of the Middle East was under the rule of the Arab Caliphate, Yemen converted to Islam. By the 10th century, when the influence of the Arab Caliphate began to weaken, numerous local dynasties began to come to the fore in the region. The mountainous northern regions were dominated by the Shia Zaidis, and in the south by the Sunni Shafiites, who opposed each other. It can be said that from that moment Yemeni history is divided into two branches: the history of North Yemen and the history of South Yemen. Check a2zdirectory for old history of Yemen.
In 1517, North Yemen fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, however, in 1633, as a result of an uprising, the Turks were expelled. Thus, an independent Islamic state appeared – the imamate of the Zaidis. At the end of the 19th century, the Turks returned power in the region, but already in 1918, after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, North Yemen gained independence and became a kingdom, the power in which belonged to an imam from the Shiite community of Zaidis. After the anti-monarchist revolution of 1962, North Yemen was proclaimed the Yemeni Arab Republic.
South Yemen has been a British colony since 1839. In 1959, he became part of the vast British colony – the Federation of South Arabia. In the 60s of the 20th century, after the anti-monarchist revolution in North Yemen, South Yemen began to fight against the British colonial troops. After seven years of war in 1967, Great Britain withdrew its troops from the territory of South Yemen, in the same year the People’s Republic of South Yemen was proclaimed. In 1970, the state was renamed the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen, whose leadership adhered to a socialist orientation.
North Yemen relied on the support of Saudi Arabia, which was against the unification of the two states, because South Yemen had a pro-communist government. This led to a confrontation between neighboring states and the emergence of periodic military clashes. Instability in North and South Yemen allowed their opposition forces to stage riots. It was the threat from the radicals that rallied the two warring countries and in 1990 they united to form the Republic of Yemen. However, in subsequent years, military clashes took place in the country more than once. In 1994, the former leaders of the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen proclaimed an independent state in the South, but the armed uprising was suppressed. Also in the second half of the 90s, Islamic radicals increasingly organized terrorist attacks and abducted tourists, demanding, at the same time,
To date, Yemen remains the only republic on the Arabian Peninsula and the poorest country in the region.
There are cases of kidnapping of tourists in the country, especially in remote provinces, so it is recommended to stay only in large hotels, do not walk along the outskirts of cities, and when traveling long distances, it is better to use air transport.
It must be constantly remembered that Yemen is an eastern country that lives according to the laws of Islam. The local norms of behavior differ from European ones. Tourists are advised not to dress flashy or too provocatively. Swimwear, shorts, short skirts and sleeveless tank tops should only be worn on the beaches. It is not recommended to publicly kiss, hug or exchange other signs of attention between members of the opposite sex. Local residents are not allowed to drink alcohol, tourists should also not drink it in public places. A person under the influence of alcohol can be arrested or deported. Alcoholic drinks can only be found in hotels. During Ramadan, tourists are not recommended to hold feasts with an abundance of food in public places, smoke, and even more so drink. In Yemen it is not recommended to take pictures of women, military, police officers, as well as infrastructure and defense facilities. But you can bargain almost everywhere.
You should not swim on the beaches of large cities, as coastal waters are most often heavily polluted. Along the southern coast of Yemen, there are quite strong sea currents, so you can only swim in strictly designated areas.