An important agrarian state even before the World War, agriculture is the basis of the Hungarian economy, as the crops, in addition to covering by far the internal needs and feeding some industries, allow a considerable export. Indeed, the agricultural area has greatly increased in relation to the total area due to the loss of the entire mountain belt, and even if some of the most productive districts (Banat, Bačka) have passed to other states, the crops are still far from having reached that degree of intensity that prohibits increasing production even more. 71.2% of the national territory is intensively cultivated, of which 60.2% in fields, 1.2% in orchards and gardens, 2.2% in vines. The pastures extend over 10.6% of the territory, the woods on 1.8%, while the rest is uncultivated. The conditions are on the whole equally favorable in the various geographic regions, the unproductive terrain being equally widespread everywhere. However, it can be noted that fields are more extensive in Alföld (66.6%), as well as pastures (12.3%) and vines (2.6%), while vegetable gardens and woods occupy a larger area in percentage terms. in the northern hilly area. In Alföld the forest occupies only 4% of the area, in Pannonia 16.1%. while the vegetable gardens and woods occupy a larger area in percentage terms in the northern hilly area. In Alföld the forest occupies only 4% of the area, in Pannonia 16.1%. while the vegetable gardens and woods occupy a larger area in percentage terms in the northern hilly area. In Alföld the forest occupies only 4% of the area, in Pannonia 16.1%.
Regarding the property, the large estates, whose origin still dates back to donations made in the thirteenth century by the kings, as a reward for the services of the nobles, extended before the world war on a third of the cultivated land and were in the hands of 2-3,000 individuals, the so-called tycoons; the small property, very divided, owned two fifths of the land and the rest was divided between properties of medium size. There were also considerable properties bound by trusts, as well as those belonging to religious entities. The fact is that in 1914, just to remember an example, the Esterházy family owned 231 thousand ha. and had 700 thousand people directly or indirectly (mostly jobbágy”servants”). The agrarian reform (Szabó law: autumn 1920), which appears much more temperate than in other states, has favored the purchase of land for those who have made themselves deserving of the country (invalids, valiant soldiers), as well as for agricultural workers, owners of very small companies, to artisans. Those who had nothing received properties with a maximum area of 3 iugeri (iiugero = 0.575 ha.), those who already owned some land were able to round up their property up to 15 iugeri. The state has procured the land to be divided either by transfer by way of payment of the special tax on assets, or by expropriation or purchase. In recent years the number of very small properties has increased considerably, so much so that there are 600,000 of them with an area of less than 1 year, but the large property, especially in Pannonia, is still very widespread, as evidenced by the fact that 581 owners they have estates over 2000 years, and that approximately one third of the agricultural area is in the hands of 1130 large owners (estates of over 575 ha.).
The main crops are the following:
The harvest is significant and increasing significantly, but compared to the large overseas monoculture, the agricultural organization is too fragmented, while on the other hand the farmer is unable, and this partly due to the unstable climate, to reach the unitary yields of Western Europe. The sharp drop in prices in recent years has put Hungarian agriculture even more in difficulty. For Hungary public policy, please check petsinclude.com.
The breeding of livestock pushes to reserve large areas also for alfalfa (1944 sq km), vetches (1709), clover (1497), forage maize (748). Hemp (109 sq. Km.) Finds favorable conditions in the dry soils of Alföld, flax (155 sq. Km.) In the wetlands of Pannonia. Tobacco extends over 164 sq km. (including 73 in the Szabolcs committee), poppy out of 179, rapeseed out of 125, sunflower out of 52. Vegetables, which have been recognized as being very rich in vitamins, also find favorable cultivation conditions and are widely exported. Paprika (47 sq km), a Hungarian national spice, is preferably harvested in Alföld (important markets of Seghedino and Kalocsa). Fruit production (15, 7 million fruit trees) and wine is higher than domestic consumption and feeds a fair amount of exports. The cultivation of vines covers an area of 2112 sq. Km., Of which 1070 in Alföld, 756 in Pannonia, 286 in the hilly committees of the north. About two thirds of the vineyards are on the plain, the rest on the hills, especially on the basaltic reliefs of Balaton and in the Bükk and Hegyalia (Tokaj) groups.
As regards forests, today’s Hungary, with the Carpazî lost, is one of the poorest regions in Europe, given that the forest area reaches just 11.8%. There is also a considerable difference according to the different regions, since the forest occupies 3412 sq km. in the humid heights of Felföld, 5966 sq. km. in Pannonia (especially in the committees of O. and SO.) and only 2365 in the Alföld (mainly acacias, Canadian poplars, elms and willows), with minimal values in the eastern Alföld, where the steppe character of the Lowland is more pronounced.
On the other hand, the stock of livestock in Hungary is considerable; however it was badly damaged by the war and is now far from reaching the figures of 1914 both in number and in value.
Cattle breeding is more important in Pannonia (22.8 heads per sq. Km. And 311 per 1000 residents) than in Alföld (14.4 and 120 respectively). In Pannonia, breeding is done intensively; the cattle shelter in stables, which each small owner also owns in order to obtain the necessary fertilizer for agricultural crops. On the other hand, in Alföld, breeding is extensive and the cattle are left to graze outdoors for a long time, especially in those barren areas (puszta), where due to scarcity of water or saline outcrops the land is otherwise not usable. Particularly noteworthy in this regard are the Puszta Hortobágy to the West of Debrecen (860 sq. Km.) And the Puszta Bugac, to the SW. of Kecskemét, where, however, the amount of grazing cattle, as the plow advances more and more on the edge of it, tends to decrease. Horses, well known for their endurance and strength, are widely used for transporting people from villages to estates. Pig farming is in decline. The largest market of the latter is in Köbánya near Budapest. Pork processing centers (lard, cured meats) are Seghedino and Debrecen. The number of sheep has also greatly decreased, although in many areas favorable conditions for breeding are offered. Connected with the agriculture is then the breeding of farmyard animals (hens, geese, ducks, pigeons) which feed a strong export, both of eggs and feathers, as well as of living and dead meat. Beehives (210,000) are frequent especially in Pannonia and along the Tisza. The breeding of the silkworm is widespread, albeit in a rather limited way, especially in the southern committees. The extension of mulberry trees in the hilly territories of the N. is recent, with which attempts are made to remedy the loss of about three quarters of the pre-war harvest. albeit in a rather limited way, especially in the southern committees. The extension of mulberry trees in the hilly territories of the N. is recent, with which attempts are made to remedy the loss of about three quarters of the pre-war harvest. albeit in a rather limited way, especially in the southern committees. The extension of mulberry trees in the hilly territories of the N. is recent, with which attempts are made to remedy the loss of about three quarters of the pre-war harvest.