In the last decade a series of researches has broadened the framework of knowledge on Hungarian archeology (see pannonia, XXVI, p. 202; aquinco, III, p. 809; brigezione, VII, p. 853).
Prehistory. – In Zengővárkony, north of Pécs, an inhabited area and a cemetery (altogether about 70 ha.) From the end of the Neolithic age came to light, with irregularly shaped houses dug into the earth and, among these, some tombs with skeletons curled up. The rich pottery is painted in red, the plates have a tubular base, the preferred decoration motifs are the meandering spiral and the meander. This material belongs to the second group of the Tisza culture. In 1947 one of the most important areas of Baden culture was excavated in Budapest, which entered Hungary from the west at the end of the Neolithic age. Quadrangular huts, large m. 3 × 4, oval-shaped garbage pits, hearths. In the pottery there are many plates divided in two, and conical vessels with the top down and large ears; the predominant decorative motifs are the triangle and the oblique hatching. A settlement dating back to the Aeneolithic and Bronze Age was discovered near Pécs, near the village of Nagyárpád. Its pottery bears witness to the Vučedol-Zók culture, flourishing near the Drava and still flourishing in Pannonia in the early Bronze Age periods. From the early Iron Age period, which in Hungary is linked to the name of the Illyrians, an inhabited area and a cemetery were discovered on the island of Szentendre. Characteristic of the cemetery is that the urns were surrounded by stones arranged in a large circle, on which small mounds rose. Among the ceramic material of the tombs there are all the forms of the time (pot-bellied urns, bowls with flat or concave bottom, etc.). At the end of the first period of the Iron Age (seventh and sixth centuries BC), the invasion of the Scythians in Hungary took place. Memories of this era can be found in the uncovered cemetery in Tápiószele, containing more than 400 burial graves. The rich material of ceramics and weapons is still unpublished. The irruption of the Scythians touched the upper region of the Tisza and Transylvania. around 500 BC C. Celtic emigration was already invading Hungary from the west. The Scythian invasion touched the upper region of Tisza and Transylvania. around 500 BC C. Celtic emigration was already invading Hungary from the west. The Scythian invasion touched the upper region of Tisza and Transylvania. around 500 BC C. Celtic emigration was already invading Hungary from the west.
The most important archaeological material, relating to the dominion of the Celts in Hungary, is provided by Budapest in the area of Mount San Gerardo. This territory was occupied by the Celts relatively late, towards the middle of the 1st century. to. C. With the excavations carried out in recent years, small quadrangular houses (megaron type) and larger rectangular houses have come to light. In the ceramics of this area we find, next to the rough containers of local production, also those painted in red, imported (or imitated) from the West.
Roman age. – The name of the Roman city is still unknown (300 × 400 square meters), discovered in the Albertfalva area, on the southern border of Budapest. It dates back to the time of the Julius-Claudian dynasty and therefore it can be assumed that it was founded at the same time as the auxiliary castro of Aquincum, 13 km. to the north (both controlled the indigenous village of the oppidum Eraviscorum of Monte San Gerardo). So far, research has been carried out only on the western edge and revealed quadrangular dwelling houses decorated with paintings and stuccoes, with porches and grain stores, as well as stables and premises for shops. The buildings were rebuilt several times and the city was destroyed in the century. IV.
Excavations over the last decade have also clarified the formation of Limes Pannonicus. In the Brigetio legionary camp, the latest research has found three construction phases: 1) the construction of the castro at the beginning of the century. II; 2) the first reconstruction after the Marcomano-Sarmatic war; 3) the second reconstruction at the beginning of the century. IV. A pottery factory was found in the territory of the canabae. At 12 km. from Aquincum, in the territory of Ulcisia Castra(Szentendre), an auxiliary Pannonian camp was discovered in its main buildings for the first time. For Hungary 2004, please check topb2bwebsites.com.
The encampment surrounded by double moats occupied a space of 234 × 133 m2. It was built in the time of Alexander Severus and was rebuilt in 294 omitting the reentering towers, building horseshoe-shaped towers protruding from the walls (at the corners the towers were fan-shaped). At the same time, with the exception of the porta praetoria, the other entrances were all walled up. Behind the decumanus front of the castle, a part of the canabae (shops, quadrangular houses with air heating and late Roman wall paintings) has come to light. In the territory of the legionary castro of Aquincum have come to light: a governor’s palace with a mosaic floor, mural painting from the time of Hadrian and another layer of painting from the century. III, as well as a military hospital (valetudinarium). Of the territory of the canabae are worthy of mention a building with a central courtyard adorned with a portico, with a series of small rooms (scholae collegiorum) and a military amphitheater, similar to that of Pompeii, which due to its size (131 × 106 m., the arena m. 88 × 65) was the largest amphitheater in the Danube area (it could hold about 15,000 spectators). Its construction was completed by the leg. II Adiutrixunder Antoninus Pius (154-161). At the time of Valentinian I, its 24 secondary entrances walled up, it was transformed into a fortress.
The excavations made in the southern part of Aquincum, give us a general picture of civil life for the century. II: small rectangular manor houses, with rear garden and cellar, which were missing in the part of the city of the century. III-Iv previously discovered. A new mithraeum was found which goes back to around 150 AD. C. and that had been rebuilt and enlarged in the first decades of the century. III. The cult image, the Tauroctonian Miter, was sculpted in the round. Outside the walls, near the city gate, the remains of a deversorium were found in 1947. In the northern part, the remains of the city gate have been excavated, as well as dwelling houses from the late Roman period.
They shed light on the living conditions of the population of the provinces, the farms (villae rusticae) found on the borders of Budapest (Pomáz, Budakalász, Hármashatárhegy) and the Roman village found near Szentkirályszabadja-Romkút (Veszprém). A decorated villa was discovered in Hosszúhetény (province of Baranja). The square vessels of a cemetery in Brigetio (between the II and III centuries) and in Buda, in via Csalogány, the human remains buried in tree trunks of a cemetery of the century suggest a barbarian immigration. IV.
Christian age.- The spread of Christianity at the end of the century. III is documented by the discovery of the Basilica of S. Quirino in Szombathely in Savaria. The basilica has a single nave, and its mosaic floor has an affinity with the mosaics of the Basilica of S. Teodoro in Aquileia. A three-colored cell has also come to light near it. In Sopianae (Pécs), a painted cubicule was discovered in the Cathedral square; the representation of a jug and a glass garlanded with grape leaves refers to the Eucharist; the plinth imitates marble and has the well-known bar motive of the catacombs; comeback in the middle of the century. IV. A part of the late Roman cemetery of Ságvár (Tricciana) also has an early Christian character.