Cultural landscape on Bali (World Heritage)
The world cultural heritage protects the communities called Subak to maintain complex rice irrigation systems in Bali.
Cultural landscape in Bali: facts
|Official title:||Cultural landscape in Bali: the Subak system as a manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana philosophy|
|Cultural monument:||Centuries-old Subak system (Subak = connected water) on the Indonesian island of Bali consisting of canals and tunnels to supply water to the rice terraces; Connection of rivers through tunnels, canals and aqueducts; Area of 200 km² with five rice terraces; Presumably in existence since the 9th century, first written mention in 1022; System based on the philosophical concept Tri Hita Karana for the harmony between God, man and nature, resulting from the 2,000 year old exchange with India; religious cultivation of the system in the form of a large number of water temples, including the Pura Taman Ayun temple from the 18th century, the most glamorous building of this type on Bali; cooperative, democratic and egalitarian system of collective water management by the farmers with extremely productive rice cultivation|
|Location:||Central Bali, Indonesia|
|Meaning:||Outstanding testimony to the use of nature on the basis of a cultural tradition; unique concept of water management based on egalitarian and religious values; exceptional example of the spiritual embedding of agricultural activities|
Tropical rainforests of Sumatra (World Heritage)
The world heritage with the three national parks Gunung Leuser, Kerinchi-Seblat and Barisan Selatan extends over an area of around 25,000 km² and has an extraordinarily species-rich forest ecosystem. It is home to around 10,000 species of plants, around 580 species of birds and over 200 species of mammals, including the orangutan, the Sumatran tiger and the Sumatran forest elephant. The world heritage site has been on the red list since 2011.
Tropical Rainforests of Sumatra: Facts
|Official title:||Tropical rainforests of Sumatra|
|Natural monument:||Tropical rainforests with the three national parks Gunung Leuser, Kerinci Seblat and Bukrit Barisan Selatan; 2.5 million hectares total area; Home to around 10,000 plant species (17 of which are endemic), around 580 species of birds (of which 21 are endemic) and over 200 species of mammals; including Sumatran orangutan, Sumatran tiger and Sumatran forest elephant; major threat from ongoing deforestation|
|Meaning:||Exceptionally species-rich forest ecosystem|
According to neovideogames, Surabaya, is the capital of the province of Jawa Timur (East Java), Indonesia, opposite the island of Madura, (2010) 2.8 million residents.
State and private universities, TH (ITS); catholic bishopric; Museum. The well-developed port of Tanjung Perak is the second largest in Indonesia. Textile, cigarette, glass, leather, sugar industry, shipbuilding. B. the Wonokromo oil refinery and the Gresik cement factory. Surabaya is a naval base (Ujung) and has a modern airport (Juanda).
Surabaya, perhaps founded around the middle of the 15th century, has been under the United East India Company since 1743 and, under Dutch administration, developed into the most important trading city in the Dutch East Indies.
Bandung, city on Java, Indonesia, capital of the province of Jawa Barat (West Java), 715 m above sea level on the Prianger highlands, (2010) 2.4 million residents.
Due to the favorable climate under Dutch colonial rule, particularly promoted and connected to Jakarta by rail and road; Teaching and research institutes (including the oldest TU in Indonesia [ITB], nuclear research center, observatory); Seat of a Catholic bishop; Food, textile, defense and aircraft industries; Airport.
Bandung, an insignificant settlement until 1810, has since been expanded by the Dutch into a resort, which experienced a strong economic boom after the completion of the Bogor railway line. Occupied by the Japanese from 1942–45. In 1955 the city was the venue for the Bandung Conference.
Medan, provincial capital in North Sumatra, Indonesia, (2010) 2.1 million residents.
Catholic Archbishop’s Seat; State and Islamic University, Tobacco Research Institute; Center of the tobacco growing area of Deli; Textile, food, building materials industries, sawmills, shoe factories, wire rod mills, mechanical engineering; international Airport. The port is Belawan (export of tobacco, rubber, palm oil products, vegetables).
Colonial-era buildings, particularly important is the Great Mosque (“Mesjid Raya”, 1906).
Medan developed as a result of the Dutch tobacco plantation economy.
Conflict over East Timor
On December 7, 1975, Indonesian troops began to occupy the former Portuguese part of Timor (East Timor), which was annexed as the 27th province in 1976 against the resistance of the local guerrilla movement (especially FRETILIN) (according to estimates, the military action and its consequences demanded about 200,000 dead). The (internationally not recognized) annexation repeatedly led to serious unrest among the population of East Timor and to bloody clashes with the Indonesian military (including in Dili in 1991).
After many years of negotiations, Indonesia and Portugal (as the former colonial power of the area) agreed in May 1999 to hold a referendum among the East Timorese people on the future of their territory. After the referendum held under the control of the UN on August 30, 1999 with a clear vote in favor of the independence of East Timor, pro-Indonesian militias with the support of the army and police hit the island half with a wave of destruction and bloody terror, which led to the intervention of a multinational peacekeeping force. When Australia took over the supreme command of this peacekeeping force, Indonesia announced on September 16, 1999 the security agreement concluded with it in 1995.
In October 1999, the Indonesian People’s Consultative Congress finally annulled the annexation of East Timor, which gained independence on May 20, 2002 following the expiry of a UN interim administration. In December 1999 Portugal fully restored diplomatic relations with Indonesia that had broken off in 1976.
In terms of foreign policy, Indonesia ended its policy of confrontation with Malaysia in 1966 and also took its seat in the UN again. In 1967 it took part in the founding of ASEAN and in 1989 joined APEC. As part of the movement of the non-aligned states, Indonesia pursued a policy more inclined towards the industrialized countries of Western Europe and the USA. In December 1995, Indonesia signed a security agreement with Australia.