|STATE STRUCTURE||Presidential republic|
|INTERNAL DIVISION||The state is divided into 34 provinces, including the Jakarta Special Capital Region and the Yogyakarta Special Region.|
|SQUARE||1 919 440 km²|
|NATIONAL COMPOSITION||The largest ethnic group is the Javanese, who make up about 42% of the total population of Indonesia. Other large groups: Sundanese (15.4%), Malays (4.1%), Chinese (about 4%), Madurese (3.3%), Bataks (3%), Bugis (2.9%), Minangkabau (2.7%)|
|TIMEZONE||UTC +7-9 / Moscow time +4-6|
The red color of the Indonesian flag means bravery, while the white color means purity.
The coat of arms of Indonesia is called “Garuda Pancha Sila”. It depicts the mythical bird Garuda and a heraldic shield, which consists of five parts, symbolizing the principles of the national philosophy. Garuda holds a scroll, on which the country’s motto diversity.”
According to Franciscogardening.com, the largest country in Southeast Asia is located on the islands of the Malay Archipelago. In the northwest, the Strait of Malacca separates Indonesia from Malaysia and Singapore, in the northeast, along the sea, Sulawesi borders with the Philippines, and in the southeast The Timorese and Arafura Seas separate the state from Australia. Indonesia has land borders with Malaysia and Papua New Guinea.
The predominantly mountainous terrain of the country complicates the development of the territory and transport links. Volcanic and seismic activity is high in the archipelago – there are more than 100 active volcanoes and 400 more dormant.
Most of the lowlands are located along the rivers and coasts of the seas. The largest islands in Indonesia are New Guinea, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Java, where the capital Jakarta is located.
On the territory of the country, there are two types of climate, which, in turn, are subdivided into many local microclimates, typical for Indonesia. In the south and east, a subequatorial climate prevails, with a rainy season from November to February and a dry season in the remaining eight months. The equatorial maritime climate has taken over the northern part of the country, and the seasons here are directly opposite to the southern territories. The average air temperature is +32 degrees on the coast and +20 degrees in the mountains, where sometimes there are frosts.
Interesting fact: During the rainy season, the relative humidity in Indonesia reaches 90%, while during the rest of the year it is 80%. This is one of the highest rates in the world.
Many travelers call Indonesia heaven on Earth. man! Three-tiered evergreen forests, full-flowing rivers, amazing blooming gardens and snow-white beaches. About 1,500 species of birds and at least 500 species of mammals live in the expanses of the archipelago, and the flora includes 40,000 species of plants. Many representatives of the fauna are found in the wild only here and are listed in the Red Book. Komodo dragons, Kalimantan cats, pygmy killer whales – the animal world of Indonesia amazes with unusual inhabitants.
An interesting fact: Rafflesia Arnold grows on the islands – the rare and largest flower in the world, its diameter can reach one meter.
The lands of modern Indonesia began to be inhabited more than 5,000 years back. Dozens of states were born on the “paradise islands”. Modern Jakarta was founded by the Dutch in 1612 as a sea fort in Java called Batavia. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Indonesian intelligentsia raised the question of the country’s independence, on August 17, 1945, it was proclaimed, and officially recognized by The Hague – only in 2005. Today, a democratic regime thrives in the country, which contributes to the settlement of ethno-confessional and economic issues.
Indonesia is the most populous Muslim country, Islam has had a great influence on the culture. But ancient paganism is also very popular among the people, the traditions of which have been preserved to this day. Indonesians also have superstitions. For example, it is customary to eatonlywiththerighthandandtogreettheastheleftisconsidered“unclean.” Feelings in public will not become – this is not accepted here, and the tourist should be aware of this.
Interesting fact: One of the features of the culture of Indonesia is linguistic diversity. 728 languages and dialects are spoken here.
In addition to the religions – Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam – and the ethnic groups inhabiting Indonesia, the country’s culture was greatly influenced by India and China, as well as European peoples in period of the Middle Ages. Two ethno-cultural regions can be distinguished in the country – western and eastern. The former has the vast majority of the populationand is considered more developed.
Every official event in Indonesia is accompanied by a performance based on religious themes expressed through art. Traditional Indonesian dances are known all over the world, attracting the eye with unusual costumes and performance. The famous Wayang Theater borrows most of the plots from the Indian epic, masked actors, wooden puppets created by local craftsmen, or just shadows can participate in the performances. Painting, literature, the technique of creating national costumes – everything is saturated with traditions here. Indonesians remain true to the principles of mutual assistance and harmony, strictly follow their social role.
Education in Indonesia is divided into several levels. Pre-school, which lasts from one to three years, is considered optional. incomplete secondary education. To get a full secondary education and enter a university, you need to unlearn 3 more years. One of the most prestigious institutions of higher education is the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, founded in the middle of the 19th century by the Dutch.
Indonesia is a sports country. If before the formation of an independent state, only privileged strata of the population could go in for sports, now it is available to everyone. About 4 million people go to sports schools, 60% of them are young under 25 years old.
An interesting fact: the Indo-Malayan geographic zone, whichincludesIndonesia,isthehomeoftaro,yams,sometypesofsugarcane,manytypesoffruit, plants.
Indonesia attracts tourists from all over the world with the opportunity to combine a beach holiday with an active one, and at any time of the year; there are beautiful ancient temples and palaces, underwater caves and colored lakes. The most popular islands are Java, Lombok, Sumatra, but the most famous is Bali, whose beaches are famous for their yellow fine sand, and the coast attracts surfers.
Rest in this country is very convenient to combine with health procedures. Traditional medicine of Indonesia, based on natural and climatic features, and modern are also famous – well-equipped specialized medical institutions with highly qualified specialists are located here. considered to be among the best in the world, especially those in Jimboran village in Bali. Thalassotherapy and various types of massage are used here to restore strength and treat various diseases.
For shopping and entertainment it’s better to go to large cities, like Jakarta. Here is the largest shopping center in East Asia – Taman Anggrek Mall, where more than 450 stores are located under one roof. But for souvenirs it’s better to go to traditional markets. Crafts made of bone and wood, fabrics and painted masks, traditional puppet theater figures – the choice is huge. Art lovers can purchase batik paintings, which invented on the island of Java.
Entertainment in Indonesia is mainly related to “green” tourism. Travelers are offered to visit unique reserves, go diving or go to the zoo. There is a large water park in Bali, and in the north of Jakarta there is a huge beautiful
aquarium During national holidays in Indonesia, parades and processions with dances and music are held. Catholic Christmas and New Year are celebrated here on an unusual scale – they are celebrated for two weeks. On Independence Day of Indonesia, all houses and streets are decorated in the colors of the national flag and colorful garlands are hung everywhere.
Traveling to this fabulous land, it’s impossible not to try the local cuisine. Many national dishes, such as Indonesian fried rice, have conquered the whole world. Exotic flavor combinations typical of national dishes always amaze tourists. Different regions of Indonesia have their own culinary traditions and features, ingredients and cooking methods, and rules for eating. One of the most popular dishes is meat on a spit, which is called Sotey. It is cooked on charcoal with peanut sauce and served with rice briquettes.
Indonesia is so beautiful and multifaceted that tourists who have been here are returning to this paradise at the confluence of two oceans.