The vast majority of the vast area is made up of dry plains, shrub steppes and grass steppes with the Ustjurt drought in the middle, driest part. In a broad border region to the north and west, precipitation is greater and the soil fertile. Farthest to the south are irrigated areas by the river Syr Darja and to the southeast an area of high mountains (Alatau) south and east of the former capital Almaty. Much of the Caspian Sea is located in Kazakhstan, as are the great lakes Aral and Balkhash.
Kazakhstan, with its numerous populations of different origins, is a multi-ethnic state. The numerically dominant groups are Kazakhs and Russians; some smaller groups are made up of Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Germans, Tatars and Belarusians. In addition, there are a large number of smaller peoples. The population fell in the period 1989-99 by 1.5 million. due to emigration of especially Russians and Germans, but since 2002 it has again increased and approached 15 million. in 2005. The composition of the population reflects the country’s history. Already from the 1700’s. groups of Russian Cossack peasants settled on the fertile plains to the west and north, and after the final conquest of Central Asia, Russian soldiers settled in the area south of Balkhash, the Seven River Land. During the great forced collectivization of the Soviet era, manykulaks forcibly relocated to Kazakhstan, and during World War II, both companies and workers were evacuated there. During this period also became Volga Germans exiled here, and in the 1950’s there was a large influx of young Russians and other Soviet citizens to the campaigns of cultivating “virgin land” on the northern plains. In addition, raw material extraction and newly established industry since the 1930’s have attracted Russian specialist workers and technicians. The Kazakh population was also affected by their affiliation with Russia. The suppression of an uprising in 1916 led to several tribes fleeing to China, and when the nomadic population in the 1930’s was forced to settle and collectivize the cattle herds, there was a great decline in the cattle population and a consequent famine. Again, many fled to China and Mongolia; between 1926 and 1939 the population did not increase and the Kazakhs came in the minority in the country. It was not until 1989 that they again became the largest ethnic group, pga.
- Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Kazakhstan? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.
Kazakhstan has large reserves of a wide range of raw materials, coal, oil, natural gas, iron, manganese, nickel, copper, gold, etc. Many cities have sprung up around mines. A well-known example is Karaganda, which was built under the Soviet Union’s 1st five-year plan in the middle of the country’s large central coal field and is now a major industrial city and Kazakhstan’s second largest city. The city’s water supply is secured by a 500 km long water pipeline from Pavlodar on the river Irtysh.
The main oil and gas fields are located by and in the Caspian Sea. Oil production in 2003 and 2004 reached 1 million. barrels per. day, which is mainly due to foreign investors accounting for 85% of production; since 1991, several foreign companies have invested here, including ChevronTexaco is active in the joint venture company Tengizchevroil. The majority of exports take place through Russian pipelines, but in December 2005 an oil pipeline was opened to China.
Large parts of the country’s raw materials are exported, but they also form the basis for a varied domestic industry, e.g. heavy industry. Some of the companies have been further developed from the factories that were evacuated here during World War II for military reasons. Part of the light industry processes local agricultural products, wool, cotton, tobacco, leather and food.
Electricity production is mainly based on the rich coal deposits. A few but very large hydropower plants are found on the rivers Syr Darya, Ili and Irtysh (with one of the world’s largest reservoirs, Bukhtarma). There is a small nuclear power plant on the Caspian Sea.
With the large new cultivations, the country has been an exporter of grain since the 1950’s. 30 million have been cultivated; it is only 9% of the total area, but a very large area in relation to the population. Large areas are cultivated extensively in huge farms, the former sovkhoser. Far larger areas are located as pastures for the large livestock with both dairy and slaughter cattle and sheep. In irrigated agriculture to the south, cotton, rice and tobacco. Despite the adoption of a land law in 2003, privatization has not really taken off.
Kazakhstan – language
Kazakh is from 1989 official language on a par with Russian. In addition, Ukrainian, German, Tatar, Uyghur and Uzbek are spoken. For culture and traditions of Kazakhstan, please check animalerts.
Kazakhstan – Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted after a referendum in 1995. The executive power lies with the President, who is elected by direct suffrage for a term of seven years and who can be re-elected immediately only once.
Only the President can initiate constitutional amendments, and this can govern by decrees and dissolve Parliament if it casts a no-confidence motion or twice rejects his candidate for the post of Prime Minister.
The president can only appoint and remove the government, dissolve the parliament, print referendums at will and appoint the administrative heads of regions and cities.
Legislative power lies with a bicameral parliament. The Senate has 39 members, seven of whom are appointed by the president, and the other 32 are elected for six years by regional assemblies. Half of the elected senators are up for election every three years. The Chamber of Deputies, Majlis, has 77 members who are elected for six years by ordinary, direct elections in single-member constituencies.
A seven-member Constitutional Council is empowered to verify that the Constitution is properly complied with, but its rulings are subject to the presidential veto.