From 1917 to 1925, according to localcollegeexplorer, Kazakhstan was part of the Soviet Republic of Turkestan; autonomous republic since 1926, in 1936 it became a republic of the USSR. In 1991 it declared independence, becoming part of the Commonwealth of Independent States. During the 1990s, power was concentrated in the hands of President N. Nazarbaev, while widespread corruption was rampant in the country. In 1993 a new Constitution was adopted, which introduced a political system presidential type, and in 1994 the first legislative elections, whose regularity was contested by international observers, attributed the victory to supporters of the president (such as the Party of People’s Unity, a political formation that Nazarbaev had established in 1993). Despite the cancellation of the elections, Nazarbaev managed to re-impose the forces favorable to him. The opposition forces, divided and subjected to strong intimidation, continued to play a marginal role, while the power of Nazarbaev, which in 2007 the Parliament decreed the possibility of running for president for an unlimited number of mandates, has always assumed characteristics more authoritarian and personalistic. In the elections for the renewal of Parliament held in January 2012, Nazarbaev’s party recorded a new predictable victory, winning 80% of the preferences (in any case down compared to 88% of the previous consultations), while for the first time the Communist Party and the training of entrepreneurs headed by a former loyal of the president, who exceeded measures the 7% threshold. To the consultations held in April 2015- to which the opposition has provocatively renounced to present candidates – Nazarbaev was reconfirmed in the presidential office receiving 97.7% of the votes, and in the legislative elections of March 2016 the president’s party was the winner with 82% of the votes. In the economy, a process of privatization has been initiated, but the persistence of serious economic difficulties – the wealth is concentrated in a small segment of the population and in the presidential circle – has kept social tension high. In March 2019, President Nazarbaev resigned, replacing him ad interim President of the Senate KZ Tokayev,whereas the following month it called presidential elections for June 2019, bringing them one year earlier than the date originally scheduled; in the consultations the politician received 70.7% of the preferences, taking over from Nazarbaev. The political consultations for the renewal of the lower house of Parliament held in January 2021 confirmed the Nur Otan party in power, obtaining approximately 72% of the votes, followed by the Democratic Party (10%) and the People’s Party (9%).
On the international level, after relations with Iran, Turkey and China have improved since the second half of the 1990s, Kazakhstan has consolidated relations with Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, but the main economic partner and political ally remains Russia.
Dictionary of History
Kazakhstan is a state of central-western Asia. The Kazakhs they are descended from nomadic Turkish and Mongolian tribes who migrated to the region in the 12th century. and gave birth to a united kingdom between the 16th and 17th centuries. Conquered by Russia in the 18th century, the region was subjected to a colonization policy that led the Kazakhs to rebellion, which was repressed in 1847. The colonization continued intensively and in 1900 there were 160,000 Russian settlers in Kazakhstan After the revolution of 1917, Kazakhstan was part of the Soviet Republic of Turkestan until 1925; autonomous republic from 1926, it became part of the USSR from 1936. In 1991 it proclaimed independence, joining the Commonwealth of Independent States. As with other former Soviet states, the end of the communist regime did not lead to effective democratization, as power remained concentrated in the hands of President N. Nazarbaev, elected in 1991. In 1993 a new Constitution was adopted, introducing a presidential-type political system, and in 1994 the first legislative elections, whose regularity was contested by international observers, awarded the majority of seats to supporters of the president. A subsequent constitution, promoted by Nazarbaev, further strengthened his powers. In the following years the process of privatization of the economy continued, but the persistence of serious economic difficulties kept the social tension high, while strong migratory flows were recorded, especially of ethnic minorities. The opposition forces, subjected to heavy intimidation, continued to play a marginal role, corruption remained widespread, while Nazarbaev’s power took on increasingly authoritarian and personalistic characteristics. He was reconfirmed in 1999 and 2005, obtaining a further extension of the presidential prerogatives. The mainK.’s economic partner remained Russia, with which treaties of friendship, economic and technical cooperation and mutual assistance were stipulated.