Kyrgyzstan is a distinct mountain country with opulent nature; it has been called “Switzerland of Asia”. Several large mountain ranges characterize the landscape; to the east and south Tian Shan with the country’s highest peak on the border with China (Pobjedy, 7439 m), to the west Alaj, which is a northern tributary of the Pamir (Pik Lenina, 7134 m, on the border with Tajikistan), and to the NW several smaller mountain ranges towards the great steppe of Kazakhstan. Farthest to the west, the country slopes down towards the Fergana Valleyin Uzbekistan. The climate is everywhere strictly mainland climate with cold winters and otherwise dictated by the mountain landscape with large local temperature and precipitation differences; only in the Fergana Valley there is a subtropical climate. The summers are hot and sunny in most places. The large high mountain areas contain numerous glaciers, a total of over 6000 km2, and larger areas are covered by plateaus with sparse vegetation. Only 3% of the area is forested, and a similar area is cultivated. The agricultural areas are located mainly to the north around Lake Issyk-Kyl and by the capital Bishkek as well as on the rainy slopes down to the Fergana Valley.
Kyrgyzstan is a multiethnic society. 52% of the population are Kyrgyz, while Russians and Uzbeks make up numerous minorities; in addition there are a large number of small local peoples in addition to smaller groups of Volga Germans; they were deported here during World War II, and some chose to stay. The country has a tradition of peaceful coexistence between the peoples, but in 1990 there were ethnic clashes between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in the town of Osj.near the border with Uzbekistan, where the Uzbeks make up the majority; the dispute revolved around housing and land. In June 2010, there were violent riots between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in the south of the country, especially around Jalalabad and Osj. Several hundred were killed and approximately 100,000 Uzbeks fled to Uzbekistan.
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In general, the country is sparsely and very unevenly populated; the largest population concentration is found in the Tju Valley near Bishkek. It is noteworthy that 2/3 of its population. The natural population growth of approximately 1% per year reflects a low mortality rate and a fairly high birth rate.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz economy is in deep crisis. During the Soviet era, the country underwent a versatile industrialization with close ties to neighboring republics and especially to Russia. Now many connections to both suppliers and customers have been severed, and industrial production fell sharply in the 1990’s; this decline continued after 2000, and industry in 2004 provided only 17.5% of GDP. Important industries are the mechanical, chemical and plastics industries; which are produced mining equipment for own deposits of iron, mercury, antimony, tin and gold. The country has large hydropower resources, of which only approximately 10% is utilized. The rest of the energy supply is mainly based on imports, although there are smaller deposits of oil, natural gas and coal. It is a major problem that businesses and households steal electricity;
Agriculture plays an important role for the economy; private use accounts for 40% of production, which in 2004 accounted for 37% of GDP. In the mountain areas, sheep and cattle breeding is most important, while the majority of the limited arable land is irrigated. Here, among other things, wheat, barley, potatoes and sugar beet; tobacco and cotton are important sales crops.
Transport. Only Bishkek and the Tju Valley have a railway connection to the outside world, and there are only a few roads in the mountainous country. A main road from Bishkek to Naryn in the Tian Shan Mountains continues to Kashgar in China, and a new eastern route now connects the second largest city of Osh directly with Bishkek. Previously, the two cities were only connected through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Several mountain roads are part of the extensive network of drug routes north of Afghanistan.
Kyrgyzstan – language
The official language is Kyrgyz, which is the largest language and is spoken by over 2 million people. In addition, Russian, spoken by approximately 1.4 million (1996) and is used in most business and official contexts. In addition, the Turkish languages are spoken Uzbek, Uyghur and Tatar as well as Ukrainian and German. For culture and traditions of Kyrgyzstan, please check animalerts.
Kyrgyzstan – Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic is from 1993 with amendments from 2003. The legislative power lies with a unicameral parliament with 75 members, elected for five years by ordinary, direct elections.
The executive power lies with the president, who is elected by direct election for a five-year term, and can be re-elected immediately for another term. The president is also commander-in-chief of the defense.
The government is headed by a prime minister, who is appointed by the president but has to be approved by parliament. The other ministers may, on the proposal of the Prime Minister, appoint the President without the approval of Parliament. The Prime Minister is also empowered to appoint and dismiss ministers. The President controls the work of the Government and has the right to chair its meetings. There is also a constitutional council.