Luxembourg, Belgium, Holland and a part of northern France form the region of the Netherlands, with a common history until 1579. In the war of the Netherlands against Spain, Luxembourg stood alongside the southern provinces, recognizing the authority of Philip II. In 1684 it was conquered by France and returned to Spain 13 years later, by the Treaty of Rijswijk. In 1713 it passed to the Austrian Habsburgs, until Napoleon’s invasion in 1795, and subsequent annexation to the French Empire.
Napoleon defeated, in 1815 the Congress of Vienna handed over the duchy to William I of Orange, who made it the eighteenth province of his kingdom. After the Belgian rebellion in 1831 Luxembourg was divided.
The greater part went to Belgium and the lesser to William I (as Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), who accepted it in 1839. Until 1867 it was administered independently. The Germanic Confederation was dissolved in 1866 and by the Treaty of London the neutrality of the Grand Duchy was arranged.
Germany occupied it from 1914 to 1918. There was another German occupation, between 1940 and 1945, during World War II. At the end of the war he associated with Belgium and the Netherlands in the Benelux Treaty.
In 1949 Luxembourg abandoned its neutrality and became a founding member of NATO. It was also a founding member in 1957 of the EEC, which began to function in 1958. In 1964, Grand Duchess Charlotte abdicated in favor of her son, who became Grand Duke Jean.
In the 1974 elections, the Social Christian Party left power for the first time since the end of the First World War, in the hands of a coalition between the Socialist and Democratic parties.
In 1919, the Christian Social Party regained power, as the country entered a period of economic recession.
Jacques Santer became Prime Minister in 1984.
In the legislative elections of June 1989, the Social Christian, Socialist and Democratic parties obtained 22 seats. In October, the incorporation of women – who had acquired the right to vote in 191 – to the defense militias was approved.
During 1990, the ambassador to NATO, Guy de Muyser, resigned, accused of passing secret information to the USSR. That year border controls with Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands were abolished.
Luxembourg acceded in 1992 to the Maastricht Treaty, creating the European Union (EU).
In 1994, the general elections returned the majority to the alliance of the PSC and the POS; Jacques Santer continued as Prime Minister. Santer was appointed, in 1995, President of the Commission of the European Union. His place was taken by Jean-Claude Juncker.
Unemployment rose to 3.7% at the end of 1997, the lowest among the EU countries. In November, some 30 thousand people from different European countries demanded in Luxembourg a Europe at the service of employment.
In March 1998, the government announced that it would increase its financial contribution to the eastern European extension project of the high-speed rail (TGV) rail network.
Grand Duke Jean abdicated in September 2000, leaving his place to his 45-year-old son Henri, who took office in October.
The report of a French parliamentary commission in January 2002 accused Luxembourg of hindering the fight against money laundering and financial corruption. He pointed out, among the main obstacles, the strict banking secrecy and administrative slowness since collaboration from the authorities was required.
The Euro became the national currency in January 2002.
The 1 of March of 2004, workers, government and EU representatives met to define the position of Luxembourg regarding the signing of the Kyoto Treaty and the emission of gases into the atmosphere.
Jean-Claude Juncker’s Social Christian Party (PSC) won the majority of the votes in the general election of the Chamber of Deputies in June. Juncker was reelected prime minister and summoned to form the new government coalition.
57% of Luxembourgers agreed to the EU constitution in July 2005. Unlike several other states that, alerted by the French and Dutch refusal, had agreed to a reflection period of one year for their respective referendums, the Luxembourg’s parliament insisted on holding it on the scheduled date.
Luxembourg became President of the Council of the EU in June 2005.
Population: 476,676 Annual growth: 1.1% Estimate for the year 2015: 523,022,000 Annual growth by 2015: 1.2% Population density: 183 inhab. per km² Urban population: 92.8% Urban growth: 1.4% Estim. of the urban population in 2015: 94.1%
Life expectancy at birth: 79 years Life expectancy at birth, males: 76 years Life expectancy at birth, females: 82 years Overall fertility rate: 1.7 children per woman Crude birth rate: 12 births per 1,000 residents Crude mortality rate: 8 deaths per 1000 residents Women in a couple aged 15-49 years who use contraceptives:% Maternal mortality: 28 per 100,000 live births Births attended by qualified personnel: 100% Mortality in children under 1 year: 5 each 1,000 live births Mortality in children under 5 years of age: 6 per 1,000 live births Newborns with underweight, 2,500 grams: 8% Physicians: 255 per 100,000 people Nurses: 916 per 100,000 people Access to improved water sources drinking: 100% of population
According to topschoolsintheusa, net primary school enrollment: 90% Net male primary school enrollment: 90% Net female primary school enrollment: 91% Net secondary school enrollment: 80% (2003) Net male secondary school enrollment: 83% Net female enrollment in secondary education: 77% Gross enrollment in tertiary education: 12% Number of children per teacher, primary: 12
Daily: 275.7 per 1,000 people Radios: 392 per 1,000 people Televisions: 598 per 1,000 people Telephone lines: 800.2 per 1,000 people
The economic structure of Luxembourg is mainly based on the banking and insurance sector, as well as the steel industry. The agriculture, the livestock and viticulture are important too. Many culinary specialties in Luxembourg are typical of forest areas, such as hare stew and Ardenne ham. The trout and pike from the rivers are also common on the table.
Luxembourg shares the Moselle Valley with Germany, renowned for its white wines. Like other neighboring countries, it also produces well-known local varieties of beer.
GNI per capita: 56,380 US $ Atlas Method GDP per capita: 69,961 PPP, US $ Annual GDP growth rate: 4.5% Annual inflation: 2.5% Consumer price index: 2.2 all items 1995 = 100 Total net of Official Development Assistance granted: 0.8% of GNI Total net of Official Development Assistance granted: 194.0 million U $ S Energy consumption: 9,472.2 oil equivalent / kg Energy import: 98, 6% of consumption Public spending on health: 5.3% of GDP Defense spending: 0.9% of GDP
Economically Active Population: 41.8% of the total Unemployment: 5% of the EAP female EAP: 42% of the EAP
Import of goods and services: 37,859 million U $ S Export of goods and services: 46,853 million U $ S Import of cereals: 74,909 tons Import of food: 10.7% of total imports Import of arms: 0 million U $ S a 1990 values
Status of women
Estimated income gap between women and men: 0.39 Women in government positions at ministerial level: 14.3% of positions Women in parliamentary seats: 23.3% of seats
Located on the south-western slope of the Ardennes massif, it is made up of two natural regions. The northern part is a region of valleys and forests, sparsely populated and whose maximum altitude does not exceed 500 meters where potatoes and cereals are grown. To the south (Gutland) is concentrated most of the population and the main industries of the country, which has problems of water and air pollution in urban areas.
People: Luxembourgish 67.4%; Portuguese 12.1%; Italians 4.8%; French 3.5%; Belgians 2.8%; Germans 2.3%; another 7.1%.
Religion: there is no official religion. Catholics (94.9%); Protestants (1.1%); others, including Jews (4%).
Main political parties: Social Christian Party (center-right), Socialist Workers Party of Luxembourg (center-left); Democratic Party (center-left); Los Verdes (environmentalist). Main social organizations: General Confederation of Luxembourg Workers; National Council of Trade Unions.
- Official names: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg; Grand Duché of Luxembourg; Grossherzogtum Luxemburg.
- Administrative division: 3 districts and 12 cantons.
- Other cities: Esch-sur-Alzette 25,500 inhab.; Differdange 17,700; Dudelange 17,000
- Government: Constitutional monarchy. Parliamentary system.
- National holiday: June 23, National Day.
- Armed forces: 800. Others: 560 (Gendarmerie).