Macedonia History

Macedonia History

North Macedonia. (Makedonija in Macedonian) It is an independent state of the Balkan Peninsula which is located in southeastern Europe. Its capital is Skopje and it has more than 500,000 residents. Skopje is the capital city of North Macedonia according to itypejob.


It is bounded to the south by the Aegean Sea and Mine Aliakmon, to the west by the Prespa and Ohrid lakes, to the north by the Crna Gora Skopska mountains and the watershed between the Morava and Vardar basins.

Since 1913 this geographical and historical region has been divided between Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria. To the north of this is Serbia (including Kosovo), to the east is Bulgaria, to the south Greece and to the west Albania.


Only 1% of historic Macedonia is in territory belonging to the Republic of Macedonia. During the Middle Ages it was a province or thema of the Byzantine Empire, although during the 6th century there was the massive immigration of Slavs that demographically surpassed the local populations of Illyrian, Thracian and Greek origins. Then the territory came to be controlled by Bulgaria, which is why the current language and much of the Macedonian Slavic culture has strong affinities with that of Bulgaria.

From the 14th century there was the Turkish invasion and occupation that included this country in the Ottoman province of Rumelia. Turkish rule continued until the end of the 19th century. Between 1880 and 1912 (and then again in the two world wars), Slavic Macedonia was disputed by Bulgaria and Serbia, remaining under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1912, such a situation was ratified at the end of the First World War and the formation of Yugoslavia (Slavia from the south). After World War II the Slavic Macedonia that had remained in the power of Serbia became the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, one of the federated republics of Yugoslavia, the southernmost of these.

Dispute over Macedonia

The 8 of September of 1991 the Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Bulgaria was the first country to recognize Macedonia under its constitutional name. However, the international recognition of the new country was delayed by Greece’s objection to the use of what was considered a Hellenic name and flag symbol, as well as a controversial citation of the republic’s constitution. The United Nations (UN) recognized the state in 1993 with the provisional reference of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); in English Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM).

Greece imposed a trade blockade in February of 1994. The sanctions were lifted in September of 1995, after the Republic of Macedonia changed its flag and constitution. The two nations agreed to normalize their relations, but the name of the state remains a source of local and international controversy.

The 17 of December of 2005 the European Union officially accepted the nomination as a member state of the Republic of Macedonia.

At the end of 2006 the dispute between the two countries increased even more with the announcement of Macedonia of the intention to rename its main airport with the name of Alexander the Great.

In September 2007, the Greek delegation to the United Nations General Assembly witnessed the first time the Republic of Macedonia was called as such on the international scene.

After the state was admitted to the UN with the provisional reference of FYROM, other international organizations adopted the same convention. Most diplomats are accredited to the republic using the FYROM designation. At least 40 countries have recognized the country by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia.

Administrative division

The local government has been organized into 34 administrative districts or counties. In turn, Macedonia is subdivided into eight statistical regions, these are only used to obtain statistical data, so they are not an official territorial division.

Relations with the European Union

The European Agency for Reconstruction (EAR) was created in 1999, in order to establish a unified legal framework for aid to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) – the name by which the EU recognizes this state – and the other states. from the Balkans.

The EAR is an independent body of the European Union (EU), which is accountable for its management to the European Council and the European Parliament and is responsible for the management of the main EU assistance programs in Macedonia.

The EU-funded programs aim to:

  • Contribute to good governance, the building of institutions and the rule of law.
  • Continue to support the development of a market economy and continue to invest in essential physical infrastructure and environmental measures.
  • Support social development and the strengthening of civil society.

In addition, the EU collaborates in budgetary, customs and tax planning matters, the support of educational exchange programs, as well as the bilateral contributions made by its member states.

The Agency manages most of the Community funds from the Assistance to Reconstruction, Development and Stabilization (CARDS) program, which in turn is part of the measures taken by the EU in the Stabilization and Association Process (SAP).

The PEA offers a preferential trade regime under which most Macedonian products can enter the Union without tariffs, as well as a substantial package of development aid.

The European Union tries to develop circulation corridors to favor free movement among its member states. Two of these corridors pass through Macedonia.

Macedonia History