Malaysia’s climate is equatorial, influenced by the Asian monsoon, with a wet season (from November to March) and a dry season (between June and October). The plains are very hot, reaching annual averages above 28ºC (which is why the population is concentrated on the coast), while in the mountains, and in relation to altitude, temperatures drop. Average annual rainfall is about 2,500 mm in the peninsula and about 2,300 mm in the insular region. Kuala Lumpur is the capital city of Malaysia according to itypemba.
The days are warm and the nights quite cool. The main rainy season in the east lasts from November to February, while in the west, the wettest month is August.
Flora and fauna
It has a great Biodiversity of Flora and Fauna, and it is considered one of the eighteen megadiverse countries. Something to highlight in the country are its National Parks: three quarters of Malaysia is made up of green spaces of which two thirds are virgin. The best known is the Taman Negara National Park, considered a true garden of Eden. The national parks of the country are:
- Gunung Mulu National Park
- Kinabalu National Park
- Taman Negara National Park
The dense equatorial jungle occupies most of the country, which favors a rich and varied vegetation. Bamboo, ebony, sandalwood, teak and palm trees predominate, while mangrove swamps develop on the coast. The most important river is the Pahang, located on the Malay Peninsula.
In both parts of Malaysia there are recent mountain ranges belonging to the Himalayan-Alpine system. On the Malay Peninsula, the Kerbau Mountains, in the center of the country, form a mountain range that reaches 2,000 m in height (Korbu, 2,182 m; Tahan, 2,190 m). Most of the peninsular territory, however, is occupied by extensive alluvial plains, rugged by small residual reliefs. The relief of eastern Malaysia is much higher than that of Malacca, reaching an altitude of 4,101 m (Kinabalu Peak). In Sarawak there is a region of valleys covered with dense equatorial forest, so that the population of the island region is concentrated on the coast (Kuching, Kota Kinabalu or Sandakan).
Malaysia boast white sand beaches, its coral reefs are extraordinary places for divers. The most prominent beaches are:
- Tioman Beaches: They are found on the southern coast of Malaysia. They are calm, the water is perfectly crystal clear and the sand impeccably white. It is visited by a large number of tourists.
- Langkawi Beaches: Famous not only among Malaysians, but among all tourists in the world. They really are the best in all of Malaysia.
- Pantai Tengah Beaches: It is a very quiet beach. There are excellent hotels along the coast and a very good selection of places to eat.
The name Malaysia was adopted in 1963, when the nations of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak were confederated. However, the expression had already been used to refer to different places in Southeast Asia.
On a 1914 map the word already appears to indicate Insulindia. In the Philippines they even contemplated calling the archipelago that way. Names such as Langkasuka were also considered, as the kingdom located in the upper section of the peninsula between the 1st and 10th centuries.
In 1850 the Englishman George Samuel Windsor Earl proposed calling the islands of Indonesia Melayunesia or Indunesia, opting for the first alternative.
Malaysia, a member of the Asian Development Bank, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Colombo Plan, is one of the Asian countries with the largest trade deficit, although since 1987 measures have been taken to promote foreign investment and industrial and infrastructure growth (1987 and 1989 economic plans). The basic economic activity is agriculture.
The main agricultural product for consumption is rice, which depends on imports, since national production is not capable of satisfying all national demand. Malaysia is forced to import food products from Great Britain, Japan and Singapore, as well as transport equipment and manufactured basic products, becoming a country dependent on abroad. Commercial agriculture is notable for its important rubber productions, which account for about half of Malaysian exports, despite competition with Indochina. The crops of coconut, pepper, cocoa, pineapple and tea. Tin mining on the western slopes of the Malayan range makes Malaysia one of the world’s leading producers. Also noteworthy are the iron, coal and oil exploitations that are sufficient to supply the country.
The main commercial ports of the continental part communicate with the rubber plantations and with the main mining centers of the country, through a network of roads built during the British rule. However, it is still necessary to activate and promote development plans in order to improve communication and transport infrastructures, public services and, above all, in relation to rural areas. The industry, underdeveloped, seems to have experienced minimal growth in recent years.
The population, mostly concentrated in the peninsular territory, is made up of different ethnic groups that coexist with others from China (the second largest group that practices Taoism and Buddhism), India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The aboriginal population of Malacca is made up of Malays, with Mongoloid features, while more than 25 ethnic groups coexist in the insular area. The Iban and the Land Daka coexist in the Sarawak region, while the Sanah are concentrated in the Sabah and, in the coastal area of Borneo, the group of the Bajan, of agricultural tradition, settle.
The official language is Bahasa Malaysia, although other languages are also spoken, such as Chinese, English or Tamil. Although the majority of the population is Muslim (Islam is the official religion of the Federation), Hinduism and Buddhism are also practiced to a lesser extent.
The most important cities are:
- Ipoh, capital of the state of Perak, on the banks of the Kinta.
- Pinang, island city.
- Johor Baharu, south of the peninsula.
- Kuala Lumpur, the main capital of the federal state.
Other significant cities in Peninsular Malaysia are Subang Jaya, Ampang, Petaling Jaya, Taiping, Lumut, Kuantan, Klang or Port Dickson. In East Malaysia, there are also urban centers such as Sibu, Bintulu, Miri, Tawau, Lahad Datu and Kudat.
Popular art and crafts are the most significant manifestations of the country’s culture. The art, varied and diverse, has undergone profound changes since prehistoric times due to the influence of the different peoples that have lived together in the territory. From the Paleolithic era, carved pebbles have been found in Kota Tampanm and Perak.
In the north and center of the country there are caverns and underground shelters from the Mesolithic. Neolithic graves under rocks have been found in the states of Kelantan and Perlis. Also from this period there are polished lithic ornaments, pottery objects and tools. From the Iron Age, the Perak group, of indigenous culture, with iron tools, and that of Kedah and Wellesley, where the first Indian influences already appear, stand out. Only Chinese and Thai pottery remain from medieval times, testimony to an important import trade.
The ruins of small shrines (Chandi Bukit Batu Pahat) are attributed to the domination of the Srivijaya kingdom. From the 16th and 17th centuries there are remains of buildings and churches built by the Portuguese and a set of 17th century Dutch-style houses. In Malaysia, in addition, some constructions of Islamic and Buddhist influence are preserved.
The Petronas Twin Towers, is the most outstanding monument in the capital of the country, for its enormous construction with 88 floors of reinforced concrete and a facade made of steel and glass. Soar above a city built to impress, with modern Golden Triangle buildings and large-scale shopping malls. They were the tallest buildings in the world between 1998 and 2003.
The towers are joined by a double-height aerial walkway between floors 41 and 42, which forms a portal. Visits are free, but are limited to approximately 1,200 people per day. Inside the towers are made up of offices, including those of the Petronas oil company and the Malaysian headquarters of the Microsoft company.
Other interesting landmarks are the Merdeka Square, the impressive monument of Sultan Abdul Samad, the bird park, the Lake Gardens, the Sri Mahamarianan Temple and the National Museum.
Malaysia has a rich festive tradition, for example, one of the traditions when you are in the middle of a Malaysian celebration is the open house, where Malaysians welcome their friends into their homes with traditional and hearty meals. Other important holidays are:
- The Chinese New Year: it takes place in the month of February, all of Malaysia is filled with joy with the Chinese New Year. Malaysians usually gather the whole family in one of the houses with a table full of traditional and delicious dishes.
- Malaysia Water Festival: this festival takes place between the months of April to May, throughout the country. It is a great diversity of activities related to water.
- Wesak: In the month of May in Buddhist temples throughout Malaysia, religious offerings and rituals such as the Buddha bath are made.
- Moon Cake: in the month of September, this holiday became a symbol of celebration of peace and prosperity.
- Christmas: The culture Cristina from Malaysia attends Mass and meets with her family and friends.